Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies. We will be focusing on two models of memory.
The Multi-Store Model of MemoryAtkinson and Shiffrin 1968 Three step process…. • Encoding: The processing of information into the memory system. • Storage: The retention of encoded material over time. • Retrieval: The process of getting the information out of memory storage.
Sensory Memory • A split second holding tank for ALL sensory information. • Sperling’s research on Iconic Memory • Echoic Memory
Short Term Memory • The stuff we encode from the sensory goes to STM. • Events are encoded visually, acoustically or semantically. • Holds about 7 (plus or minus 2) items for about 6-15 seconds. • We recall digits better than letters. Short Term Memory Activity
Ways to remember things in STM…so they go to LTM • Chunking: Organizing items into familiar, manageable units. • Mnemonic devices or Peg Systems • Rehearsal 1-4-9-2-1-7-7-6-1-8-1-2-1-9-4-1 "Mary Very Easily Makes Jam Saturday Unless No Plums."
Long Term Memory • Unlimited storehouse of information. • Explicit (declarative) memories • Implicit (non-declarative) memories
Explicit Memories • Episodic Memories • Semantic Memories
Implicit Memories • Procedural Memories • Conditioned Memories
Forgetting Getting a new bus number and forgetting old bus number. • Retroactive Interference: new information blocks out old information. • Proactive Interference: old information blocks out new information. Calling your new girlfriend by old girlfriends name.
Spacing Effect • DO NOT CRAM!!!!!!!!!!!! • Ebbinghaus’s Forgetting Curve
Encoding Information • Primacy Effect • Recency Effect • Serial Positioning Effect
Glanzer and Cunitz 1966 Aim: • To investigate recency effect in free recall. Procedure: • This was a laboratory experiment where participants first heard a list of items and them immediately had to recall them in any order.
Glanzer and Cunitz 1966 Results: • Participants recalled words from the beginning of the list and end of the list best. • The results showed a U shaped curve.
Glanzer and Cunitz 1966 • If the participants were given a filler task (something to do) right after the last words, the primacy effect disappeared but the recency effect remained. Why? • Maybe the words are still active in STM.
Glanzer and Cunitz 1966 Evaluation • The study supports the idea of multiple stores (STM and LTM). • Controlled lab experiment. • Ecological validity issues?
Case study example of Multi-Store Model • Amnesia is caused by damage to hippocampus and related networks. • MRI scans showed that H.M. had severe damage to hippocampus which is critical to store info in LTM. • H.M. could store implicit memories but not explicit memories. • This shows that the memory system contains different systems.
Multi-Store ModelStrengths and Weaknesses Strengths Weakenesses Very simplistic • It was the first modern model of memory. • The fact that we have multiple stores is supported by research. • Most of the newer models have been based of this one.