MEMORY By ShirmeenIjaz
What is memory? • According to Feldman, “The capacity to record, retain and retrieve information”
Process of Memory • There are three processes involve in memory system. • Encoding • Storage • Retrieval
1) Encoding Encoding refers to the process of transforming information into a form that can be entered and retained by the memory system. Encoding involves forming a memory code, e.g, when you form a memory code for word you might emphasize how it looks, how it sounds or what it means. Encoding usually requires attention.
2) Storage It is a process of retaining information in memory so it can be used at a later time.
3) Retrieval Retrieval involves recovering the stored information and bringing it to the consciousness.
Stages of memory • There are three stages of memory • Sensory memory • Short term memory • Long term memory
1) Sensory memory • Sensory memory preserves information in its original sensory form for a very brief time i.e. fraction of a second. Sensory memory allows the sensation of a visual pattern, sound or touch to linger for a brief moment after the sensory stimulation is over.
Types of sensory memory 1) Iconic The storage of visual information 2) Echoic The storage of information obtained from the sense of hearing. 3) Haptic The storage of information obtained from the sense of touch.
2) Short term memory • STM is traditionally thought of as the intermediate stage between sensory memory and long term memory. In it all those information are held about which the person is currently thinking or consciously aware of. Most of the information stored in working memory will be stored for approximately 20 to 30 sec. • Baddeley called short term memory as working memory.
Storage capacity: Is almost always between 7 +_ 2 items. The capacity of short term memory can be increased through chunks and rehearsals. • Chunks: It is the process of grouping information into units in order to be able to store more information in STM. • Rehearsal: Repeating information verbally or thinking about it.
3) Long term memory It holds information that is transformed from STM through rehearsal or some other process. • Storage capacity: unlimited storage capacity and information is stored for lengthy period of time. • Organization: organization is an important feature of LTM. In the beginning, there is no organization but as information moves to LTM storage it is organized.
Clues to organization: Following are the clues through which organization takes place in LTM. • clustering • Associations
Forgetting • Forgetting refers to apparent loss of information already encoded and stored in an individual's long term memory. It is a spontaneous or gradual process in which old memories are unable to be recalled from memory storage. Theories of forgetting There are different theories of forgetting. • Decay or trace theory. • Interference theory. • Motivated forgetting theory.
1) Decay theory: This theory of forgetting, based on the assumption that memory deteriorates as time passes. Example: The memory of a movie seen last week, is usually stronger and more detailed than that of a movie seen last year.
2) Interference theory People forget information because of competition from other material.
Two types of interference • Pro-active interference • Retro-active interference • pro-active interference: It is the interference in which previously learned information interferes with the ability to remember new information. 2) Retro-active interference: In retro-active interference, the new information placed in memory interferes with the ability to recall information already in memory.
3) Theory of motivated forgetting It focuses on the fact that we sometimes unconsciously wish to forget something unpleasant. The idea that people forget things they don’t want to remember is also called motivated forgetting According to motivated forgetting theory, people are blocked from remembering something that would cause pain, threat or embarrassment.
Organic problems of memory • Due to accidents or head injury two types of memory problems may occur. • Retrograde amnesia: loss of memory of events prior to injury. • Anterograde amnesia: loss of memory for events that occurred after the injury.
Improving everyday memory • Strategies for enhancing memory. Mnemonics • over learning: over learning refers to continued rehearsal of material after you first appear to have mastered it.
2) Distributed vs mass practice: Evidence indicates that retention tends to be greater after distributed practice than after mass practice. 3) Outlining: Outlining forces you to organize material hierarchically. 4) Acronym: A word formed out of the first letters of a series of words. Example: POTUS: president of the united states
5) Narrative method: In it we create a story that includes the words in the appropriate order. For example, people could remember the colors of the rainbow in the right order by making up a short story such as this: Red Smith stood next to an orange constructed building and waiting fora yellow cab. He told the cabbie he was feeling very green and asked to be taken to a hospital. The cabbie took him to a hospital, where a nurse in a blue coat guided him to a room with indigo walls. He smelled a violet in a vase and passed out.
6) Rhymes: Another verbal mnemonic that people often rely on is rhyming.