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Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory PowerPoint Presentation
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Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory

Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory

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Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory

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  1. MemoryMemoryMemoryMemoryMemoryMemoryMemoryMemoryMemoryMemoryMemoryMemoryMemoryMemoryMemoryMemoryMemoryMemoryMemoryMemoryMemoryMemoryMemoryMemoryMemoryMemory

  2. True or False?? • When people go around a circle saying their names, their poorest memories are for what was said by the person just before them. 2. Our experiences are etched on our brain, just as the grooves on a tape receive and retain recorded messages. 3. Although our capacity for storing information is large, we are still limited in the number of permanent memories we can store. 4. The hour before sleep is a good time to commit information to memory.

  3. Recall vs Recognition

  4. The Answers • Research suggests the order, from most likely to least likely recalled is as follows: • Sleepy • Dopey • Grumpy • Sneezy • Happy • Doc • Bashful

  5. Seven Dwarfs and STM • Now, turn over the sheet and recall the names of the seven dwarfs on the back of the sheet

  6. Memory • Memory • persistence of learning over time via the storage and retrieval of information

  7. Memory • Encoding • the processing of information into the memory system • Storage • the retention of encoded information over time • Retrieval • process of getting information out of memory

  8. Ebbinghaus and Memory • Systematic and controlled study of memory in laboratory H. Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)

  9. Ebbinghaus and Memory • Ebbinghaus • Used nonsense syllables: TUV ZOF GEK MONUL WAV FALEM • the more times practiced on Day 1, the fewer repetitions to relearn on Day 2

  10. Time in minutes taken to relearn list on day 2 20 15 10 5 0 8 16 24 32 42 53 64 Number of repetitions of list on day 1 Ebbinghaus’ Retention Curve

  11. Ebbinghaus and Forgetting Curve • Most forgetting occursright after learning • approx. 50% in first 40 min • Relationship between delay andforgettingnot linear

  12. Ebbinghaus and Memory • Other important findings • Beneficial effects of distributed practice for repetitions (ie., ‘spacing effect’) • List-length effect

  13. Encoding Effortful Automatic Encoding • Automatic Processing • Effortful Processing

  14. Types of Encoding • Encoding Meaning • Acoustic Encoding • Visual Encoding

  15. Encoding Aids • Meaning (semantics) • Imagery • Mnemonics • memory aids • E.g., ‘peg-word’ system

  16. Encoding Aids • Mnemonics • Method of loci

  17. Encoding Aids • Chunking • organizing items into familiar, manageable units • use of acronyms • HOMES-Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior

  18. Remember as many of the following numbers as you can: • 1776198514922004 • 1776198514922004

  19. Remember as many of the following letters as you can: • XIBMSATMTVPHDX • X IBM SAT MTV PHD X

  20. Encoding Aids • Hierarchies • Organization of knowledge under narrower concepts/headings • Rehearsal • conscious repetition of information

  21. Memory Storages • Sensory • Short term (working memory) • Long term

  22. The Modal Memory System

  23. Stage 1: Sensory Memory • Iconic memory was demonstrated in Sperling’s classic experiment, and lasts about 1/3 second • Echoic memory • Iconic and echoic memory systems may allow us to experience the world as a continuous stream

  24. Stage 1: Sensory Memory

  25. Stage 2: Short-Term Memory • Short-Term Memory • limited in duration and capacity • George Miller’s “magical” number 7 +/- 2

  26. Percentage who recalled consonants 90 Rapid decay with no rehearsal 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 Time in seconds between presentation of contestants and recall request (no rehearsal allowed) Stage 2: Short-Term Memory

  27. Stage 3: Long-Term Memory • Rajan Mahadevan’s Amazing Memory • Memorized first 30,000 numbers of PI • Solomon Shereshevskii • “What a crumbly yellow voice you have.” • Would “feel” images, “taste” colors, and “smell” sounds

  28. Stage 3: Long Term Memory

  29. Long Term Memory Systems • Explicit memory involves conscious effort • Implicit memory occurs withoutdeliberate effort

  30. Explicit Memory • Explicit memory involves the processes used to remember specific information which can be declared • Episodic memory is personal • Semantic memory involves knowledge of facts

  31. Implicit Memory • Implicit memory is the pervasive process by which people show without awareness that they are remembering something • Implicit memory does not require attention and is automatic • Consider “procedural memory” • Repetition priming

  32. Retrieval • Recall • retrieve information learned earlier • Recognition • identify items previously learned

  33. Retrieval Cues • Reminders of information we could not otherwise recall • Guides to where to look for info • Context Effects • Priming • the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory

  34. Retrieval: Priming

  35. Percentage of words recalled 40 30 20 10 0 Water/ land Land/ water Water/ water Land/ land Different contexts for hearing and recall Same contexts for hearing and recall Retrieval: State Dependence

  36. Retrieval • Mood-Congruent Memory • tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current mood

  37. Forgetting • Interference • Proactive (forward-acting) Interference • Retroactive (backwards-acting) Interference

  38. Interference and Forgetting

  39. 90% 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Without interfering events, recall is better Percentage of syllables recalled After sleep After remaining awake 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Hours elapsed after learning syllables Interference and Forgetting

  40. Amnesia • Retrograde Amnesia • Loss of past memory • Anterograde Amnesia • Can’t form new memories Anterograde Amnesia

  41. Demonstration • Take out paper and pen…

  42. How many of you remembered… • Flame • Smoke • Fire??? • Bed • Snore • Sleep???

  43. Flashbulb Memories: Where were you when… • Brown & Kulik • JFK assassination • Neisser & Harsch • Challenger explosion study

  44. Are traumatic memories accurate? • Generally accepted theory: • Central facts remembered more accurately • Peripheral details inaccurate and often fabricated in later stories

  45. Eyewitness Testimony Method: Show video of car accident 2 conditions: “hit” vs. “smash” Results: Broken glass? No, but one week later: “smashed” = 33% yes “hit” = 14% yes

  46. False Memories • Loftus • Imagination inflation • Mall study • Leo • Suspects found to make false confessions during police interrogations

  47. Attention and Memory • Attention: internal processes used to focus our awareness on a subset of perceptual information • Attention affects what we remember