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Sensory Memory Iconic Memory Echoic Memory PowerPoint Presentation
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Sensory Memory Iconic Memory Echoic Memory

Sensory Memory Iconic Memory Echoic Memory

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Sensory Memory Iconic Memory Echoic Memory

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  1. Sensory Memory Iconic Memory Echoic Memory

  2. Iconic Memory What is the evidence? Subjective experience Objective measurements Judge duration of a light Interference Sperling’s (1960) work capacity decay (forgetting)

  3. Echoic Memory What is the evidence? Interference Darwin, Turvey & Crowder’s (1972) work capacity (auditory span of apprehension) decay (forgetting) Modality Effect (in terminal list positions) Though there are problems for echoic memory

  4. S E N S O R Y S T O R E S Info Info

  5. S E N S O R Y S T O R E S Info Info Info Short-term Memory

  6. S E N S O R Y Long- term Memory S T O R E S Info Info Info Short-term Memory

  7. Long- term Memory Info Info Short-term Memory

  8. Demo

  9. Bottleneck

  10. Long- term Memory Info Info Short-term Memory

  11. Waugh & Norman (1965) Rehearsal Secondary Memory Info Info Primary Memory Forgetting Note: Terms consistent with those used by W. James (1890)

  12. Atkinson & Shiffrin (1971) S E N S O R Y Short-term Memory Control processes Long- term Memory S T O R E S Info Info Info Response output Forgetting

  13. Primary MemorySecondary Memory Short-term StoreLong-term Store Short-term MemoryLong-term Memory Immediate Memory (Miller, 1956)

  14. Short-term memory/Long-term memory distinction What is the evidence? Different capacities Forgetting Serial position curve An approach to measurement Dissociations

  15. Quick Demo

  16. Short-term memory/Long-term memory distinction What is the evidence? Different capacities STM - - 7  2 bits Chunking (recoding) in STM LTM - - huge, don’t know whether we can max out

  17. Short-term memory/Long-term memory distinction What is the evidence? Different capacities STM - - 7  2 bits Chunking (recoding) in STM LTM - - huge, don’t know whether we can max out Retention of info (forgetting) STM - - about 30 s LTM - - relatively permanent (one view) (can remember some things a very long time)

  18. Refer back to demo

  19. Proportion of Items Recalled as a Function of List Position 1.0 P(r) 0.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 List Position

  20. Proportion of Items Recalled as a Function of List Position 1.0 Recency Primacy P(r) 0.0 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 List Position

  21. Proportion of Items Recalled as a Function of List Position 1.0 Recency Recall from STM Primacy and middle Recall from LTM P(r) 0.0 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 List Position

  22. Short-term memory/Long-term memory distinction What is the evidence? Different capacities Serial position curve An approach to measurement Dissociations

  23. Serial position curve An approach to measurement How do you know whether an item has been recalled from STM or LTM? Tulving and Colotla (1970) method count number of trials between study position and recall position (intratrial retention interval, ITRI) If ITRI  7, item has been recalled from STM If ITRI > 7, item has been recalled from LTM

  24. Study Position aunt cat eye lace lid sap sun led sore red gap flu 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Recall Position flu red sore gap aunt cat lace 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  25. Study Position aunt cat eye lace lid sap sun led sore red gap flu 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Recall Position flu red sore auntcat gap lid 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ITRI  7, STM; flu: 0, red: 3, sore: 5, gap: 6 ITRI > 7, LTM; aunt: 14, cat: 14, lid: 13

  26. Short-term memory/Long-term memory distinction What is the evidence? Different capacities Serial position curve An approach to measurement Dissociations

  27. Logic of a dissociation Try to find out whether there is more than one thing (e.g., memory store or memory process) Water and mountain example

  28. How can you find out whether there is one body of water or two bodies of water?

  29. Do something to the water on the left – does it influence all of the water or just the water on the left?

  30. Influence all of the water (in same way), then conclude one body of water. Influence only the water on the left, then conclude two bodies of water.

  31. Let’s say you do something to the water on left ( water level) and it affects only the water on the left. Conclusion: Two bodies of water. What do you do if you want to be really sure about your conclusion?

  32. Let’s say you do something to the water on left and it affects only the water on the left. Conclusion: Two bodies of water. What do you do if you want to be really sure about your conclusion? Also do something to water on right (make ripples) and see what happens.

  33. Dissociation Employ a manipulation of some type Performance in one condition changes but performance in another condition does not.

  34. Dissociation Employ a manipulation of some type Performance in one condition changes but performance in another condition does not. In water example, left body of water changes (e.g., water level gets higher) but right body does not (e.g., water level doesn’t change)—dissociation. If do something else (make ripples) to the right body of water at the same time and the right body changes (ripples) but the left body of water does not (no ripples)—dissociation.

  35. Dissociation Apply this logic to the serial position curve

  36. Dissociation Apply this logic to the serial position curve Conduct some manipulation If whole curve changes in same way, then conclude: just one type of memory or memory store If one part of curve changes but another part does not change, then conclude: more than one type of memory or memory store (e.g., two memory stores)

  37. Manipulation #1 Presentation rate Fast vs. slow

  38. Proportion of Items Recalled as a Function of List Position and Presentation Rate 1.0 Slow presentation P(r) Fast presentation 0.0 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 List Position

  39. Manipulation #1 Presentation rate Fast vs. slow dissociation affect primacy and middle positions but not recency positions

  40. Manipulation #1 Presentation rate Fast vs. slow dissociation affect primacy and middle parts but not recency part Conclusion: Two different types of memory

  41. Manipulation #1 Recall delay (retention interval) Immediate vs. delayed recall

  42. Proportion of Items Recalled as a Function of List Position and Recall Delay 1.0 Immediate recall P(r) Delayed recall 0.0 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 List Position

  43. Proportion of Items Recalled as a Function of List Position and Recall Delay 1.0 Immediate recall P(r) Delayed recall (10 s) Delayed recall (30 s) 0.0 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 List Position

  44. Manipulation #1 Retention Interval Immediate vs. delayed dissociation affect recency positions but not primacy and middle positions

  45. Manipulation #2 Retention Interval Immediate vs. delayed dissociation affect recency postitions but not primacy and middle positions Conclusion: Two different types of memory

  46. Short-term memory/Long-term memory distinction What is the evidence? Different capacities Forgetting Serial position curve An approach to measurement Dissociations

  47. Have a good day!