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Memory

Memory. The stories we tell. Cognitive Perspective. Language Intelligence Thinking and Reasoning Memory. Types of Memories. Explicit/Declarative semantic: facts, knowledge episodic: autobiographical events Implicit procedural: the ‘how tos’.

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Memory

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  1. Memory The stories we tell...

  2. Cognitive Perspective • Language • Intelligence • Thinking and Reasoning • Memory

  3. Types of Memories • Explicit/Declarative • semantic: facts, knowledge • episodic: autobiographical events • Implicit • procedural: the ‘how tos’

  4. Memory: The persistence of learning over time. Encoding Storage Retrieval

  5. Memory Construction • Recall is not an exact replica of original events • Recall is a construction built and rebuilt from various sources • We often fit memories into existing beliefs • Schemas provide a framework for new information

  6. BED CLOCK DREAM NIGHT TURN MATTRESS SNOOZE NOD TIRED NIGHT BLANKET ARTICHOKE INSOMNIA REST TOSS NIGHT ALARM NAP SNORE PILLOW Word List

  7. Enhancing Remembering • Serial Position Effect: • primacy • recency • Repetition • Distinctiveness • Organization • Mnemonics

  8. Enhancing Remembering • Mass vs. Spaced Practice • Automatic vs. Effortful Processing

  9. Automatic Processing B C A E F D

  10. Encoding Specificity • Context dependence: Scuba Diver study

  11. Encoding Specificity • State dependence • arousal level, altered states of consciousness • Mood congruence • effects of depression on memory and perception

  12. Flashbulb Memories • ‘Video-like’ memory, vivid and detailed • Usually highly emotional, shocking • Example: September 11 • How accurate are they?

  13. Flashbulb Memories • Neisser and Harsch (1992) Challenger disaster • 1 day later vs. 3 years later

  14. Eyewitness Testimony • Eyewitness testimony is influential in court • Eyewitness confidence is related to juror conviction • How accurate is eyewitness’ memory for an event?

  15. Leading Questions • Loftus and Palmer (1974) Subjects shown video of an accident between two cars • How fast were the cars going when they hit each other?

  16. Results ‘hit’ = 34.0 mph ‘contacted’ = 31.8 mph ‘bumped’ = 38.1 mph ‘collided’ = 39.3 mph ‘smashed’ = 40.8 mph

  17. The Misinformation Effect • Witness event • Receive incorrect post-event information • Asked to recall event, recall incorrect information

  18. The Misinformation Effect • Loftus, Miller and Burns (1978) • Slideshow depicting car accident • Car stopped at stop sign • Asked “What was the color of the car stopped at the yield sign?”

  19. The Misinformation Effect • Forced-Choice Recognition Test: Which slide did you see?

  20. Other Eyewitness Factors • Race Identification • Witness Expectations/Perceptions • Duration of Event • Emotional Arousal • Transference • mug shots and lineups

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