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Memory Semantic Memory Outline Models of Semantic Memory Hierarchical Network Model Spreading Activation Network Model Schemas & Scripts Semantic Memory: Hierarchical Model Collins & Quillian Semantic Memory is organized as a network of Units (nouns): shark, robin

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memory

Memory

Semantic Memory

outline
Outline
  • Models of Semantic Memory
    • Hierarchical Network Model
    • Spreading Activation Network Model
  • Schemas & Scripts
semantic memory hierarchical model
Semantic Memory: Hierarchical Model
  • Collins & Quillian
  • Semantic Memory is organized as a network of
    • Units (nouns): shark, robin
    • Properties (verbs or adjs): is yellow
    • Pointers: specify relations between units
slide4

Living

Thing

Breathes

Animal

Plant

Feathers

Bird

Mammal

Ostrich

Barks

Dog

Bat

Canary

Yellow

hierarchical network model
Hierarchical Network Model
  • Using semantic memory = searching through network for relevant information.
  • Assumptions:
    • Cognitive Economy
    • Searching the network takes time
    • More distance => more time
  • Advantages? Disadvantages?
hierarchical network models evidence
Hierarchical Network Models: Evidence
  • Reaction Time
  • Sentence verification task
    • A canary is yellow.
    • A canary breathes.
slide7

Living

Thing

Breathes

Animal

Plant

Feathers

Bird

Mammal

Ostrich

Barks

Dog

Bat

Canary

Yellow

hierarchical network models evidence8
Hierarchical Network Models: Evidence
  • Problems
    • Typicality effects
      • An ostrich is a bird.
      • A canary is a bird.
slide9

Living

Thing

Breathes

Animal

Plant

Feathers

Bird

Mammal

Ostrich

Barks

Dog

Bat

Canary

Yellow

hierarchical network models problems
Hierarchical Network Models:Problems
  • False sentences
    • A bat is a plant.
    • A bat is a bird.
slide11

Living

Thing

Breathes

Animal

Plant

Feathers

Bird

Mammal

Ostrich

Barks

Dog

Bat

Canary

Yellow

spreading activation networks
Spreading Activation Networks
  • Collins & Loftus
  • Also involves nodes and links.
  • Links need not be hierarchical.
  • Activation spreads between nodes.
    • Further = weaker
    • Activation speeds processing
  • Allows for more flexible representations.
spreading activation networks evidence
Spreading Activation Networks: Evidence
  • Meyer & Schvaneveldt
  • Priming
    • Change in readiness to perform a task resulting from prior information about the task.
      • Facilitation (positive priming)
      • Inhibition (negative priming)
  • Lexical Decision Task
    • Stimulus is presented.
    • Task is to decide whether it’s a word.
    • Interested in time that decision takes.
lexical decision task16
Lexical Decision Task

NURSE <======RT=======> ”Yes”

PLAME <================> ”No”

schemas
Schemas
  • Large unit of representation that organizes relations among concepts, situations, events, and/or actions in memory.
  • Jane heard the jingling of the ice cream truck. She ran to get her piggy bank and started to shake it. Finally some money came out.
schemas21
Schemas
  • How old is Jane
  • Why did she get the money?
  • Did she turn her piggy bank upside down?
  • Did bills come out?
  • How big was the piggy bank?
  • Where was the piggy bank located?
scripts
Scripts
  • Script: “A knowledge structure containing the sequence of events that usually occurs in a particular common situation.”
    • Going to the Dentist
    • Going to a Restaurant
    • Taking an Exam
schemas scripts implications
Schemas & Scripts: Implications
  • Integration: Info from specific events combined with general knowledge
    • Experience shapes scripts
    • Scripts guide recall
  • Advantages & Disadvantages
  • Implications for Episodic-Semantic distinction?