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Memory Semantic Memory Outline Models of Semantic Memory Hierarchical Network Model Spreading Activation Network Model Schemas & Scripts Semantic Memory: Hierarchical Model Collins & Quillian Semantic Memory is organized as a network of Units (nouns): shark, robin

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Memory l.jpg

Memory

Semantic Memory


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Outline

  • Models of Semantic Memory

    • Hierarchical Network Model

    • Spreading Activation Network Model

  • Schemas & Scripts


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Semantic Memory: Hierarchical Model

  • Collins & Quillian

  • Semantic Memory is organized as a network of

    • Units (nouns): shark, robin

    • Properties (verbs or adjs): is yellow

    • Pointers: specify relations between units


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Living

Thing

Breathes

Animal

Plant

Feathers

Bird

Mammal

Ostrich

Barks

Dog

Bat

Canary

Yellow


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Hierarchical Network Model

  • Using semantic memory = searching through network for relevant information.

  • Assumptions:

    • Cognitive Economy

    • Searching the network takes time

    • More distance => more time

  • Advantages? Disadvantages?


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Hierarchical Network Models: Evidence

  • Reaction Time

  • Sentence verification task

    • A canary is yellow.

    • A canary breathes.


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Living

Thing

Breathes

Animal

Plant

Feathers

Bird

Mammal

Ostrich

Barks

Dog

Bat

Canary

Yellow


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Hierarchical Network Models: Evidence

  • Problems

    • Typicality effects

      • An ostrich is a bird.

      • A canary is a bird.


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Living

Thing

Breathes

Animal

Plant

Feathers

Bird

Mammal

Ostrich

Barks

Dog

Bat

Canary

Yellow


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Hierarchical Network Models:Problems

  • False sentences

    • A bat is a plant.

    • A bat is a bird.


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Living

Thing

Breathes

Animal

Plant

Feathers

Bird

Mammal

Ostrich

Barks

Dog

Bat

Canary

Yellow


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Spreading Activation Networks

  • Collins & Loftus

  • Also involves nodes and links.

  • Links need not be hierarchical.

  • Activation spreads between nodes.

    • Further = weaker

    • Activation speeds processing

  • Allows for more flexible representations.


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Spreading Activation Networks: Evidence

  • Meyer & Schvaneveldt

  • Priming

    • Change in readiness to perform a task resulting from prior information about the task.

      • Facilitation (positive priming)

      • Inhibition (negative priming)

  • Lexical Decision Task

    • Stimulus is presented.

    • Task is to decide whether it’s a word.

    • Interested in time that decision takes.




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Lexical Decision Task

NURSE <======RT=======> ”Yes”

PLAME <================> ”No”





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Schemas

  • Large unit of representation that organizes relations among concepts, situations, events, and/or actions in memory.

  • Jane heard the jingling of the ice cream truck. She ran to get her piggy bank and started to shake it. Finally some money came out.


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Schemas

  • How old is Jane

  • Why did she get the money?

  • Did she turn her piggy bank upside down?

  • Did bills come out?

  • How big was the piggy bank?

  • Where was the piggy bank located?


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Scripts

  • Script: “A knowledge structure containing the sequence of events that usually occurs in a particular common situation.”

    • Going to the Dentist

    • Going to a Restaurant

    • Taking an Exam


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Schemas & Scripts: Implications

  • Integration: Info from specific events combined with general knowledge

    • Experience shapes scripts

    • Scripts guide recall

  • Advantages & Disadvantages

  • Implications for Episodic-Semantic distinction?