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The Southern Colonies

The Southern Colonies

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The Southern Colonies

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  1. Chapter 3 Section 1 The Southern Colonies

  2. The Southern Economy • Southern Economy • Economy was based on commercial agriculture • Based on cash crops • tobacco, cotton, indigo, rice, etc. • Led to the rise of plantations=large farms which required many laborers (live on the farm)

  3. Tobacco and the Chesapeake • Between 1620 and 1660, the demand for tobacco was greater than the supply=high prices • the larger quantity of tobacco you produced=the more money you make • Required intense manual labor=large work force • Chesapeake Bay region was perfect for tobacco farming • the bay provided an outlet for trade • Most farms were located by rivers so they could access the bay

  4. Chesapeake Bay

  5. Indentured Servants • Enclosure Movement=poor tenant farmers needed jobs • Were willing to become indentured servants • Met the need for workers for the tobacco farmers • Also b/c of the headright system, it gave the tobacco farmers more land=increase in tobacco production

  6. Indentured Servants

  7. Rice and Indigo in South Carolina • S.C. proprietors had hoped to grow sugarcane and rice=failed • In 1690, new type of rice was introduced • Planters from Barbados and Jamaica imported African slaves to cultivate it • Led to rice becoming South Carolina’s cash crop • In the 1740’s, S.C. began to develop another $ crop • 17 yr. old Eliza Lucas discovered that indigo needed high ground and sandy soil • Good second crop for rice plantations b/c had different harvesting seasons

  8. Indigo Plantation

  9. Southern Society • Top= Wealthy Landowners->gentry • Huge economic and political influence in South • Plantations functioned as self-contained communities • 1600’s plantation • Small • Planters worked w/ indentured servants under difficult conditions • 1700’s plantation • Slave labor w/ overseers • Large brick mansions=England’s upper class • Didn’t work their land

  10. Southern Society • Bottom=Backcountry Farmers • ½ indentured servants died b4 they acquired land • ½ of those acquired land • Pay for deed and land survey • Pay for tools, seed, and livestock • Plantation owners most land along the rivers • Most landowners in the South lived in the “backcountry” • Referred to as yeomen • Grew some tobacco, practice subsistence farming • Corn, beans, potatoes, barley, and rye • Uneven distribution of wealth b/w the gentry and yeomen would lead to rebellion

  11. Gentry

  12. Yeomen

  13. Bacon’s Rebellion • By the 1660’s, wealthy planters lead by Sir William Berkeley (VA governor) dominated Virginia’s society • He controlled legislature • Appointed who he wanted to the House of Burgesses • Received majority of supporters • Exempted himself and his supporters from taxes • Also stated you must have property to vote= ½ of VA voted (wealthy)

  14. Sir William Berkeley

  15. Bacon’s Rebellion • Most important issue for colonists was acquiring land • By1670, most land not acquired was claimed by N.A.’s • Wealthy had no interest in backcountry=opposed expansion • In 1675, war b/w backcountry settlers and Susquehannock people • Governor Berkeley built more forts in frontier for protection

  16. Bacon’s Rebellion • In April 1676, backcountry farmers met to discuss the situation • Nathaniel Bacon organized his own militia and attacked the N.A.’s • House of Burgesses authorized Bacon to raise a force of 1,000 • Allowed free men to vote • Took away tax exemptions • Bacon still wasn’t satisfied • He went to Jamestown and seized power, charged Gov. Berkeley w/ corruption • Bacon vs. Berkeley until Oct. 1676, Bacon died and his army broke apart

  17. Bacon’s Rebellion

  18. Bacon’s Rebellion

  19. Slavery Increases in Virginia • From 1680, VA colony supported westward expansion • African slaves=replaced indentured servants • Didn’t have to be freed • English government encouraged slavery w/ King Charles establishing the Royal African Company

  20. Slavery in the Colonies • Middle Passage=voyage that brought captured Africans to the Americas from Africa • Estimated 10 to 12 million Africans • 2 million believed to have died on the voyage • Read pg. 89 OladuahEquiano • 1st Africans arrived in VA in 1619 • Were treated like indentured servants • Maryland became the 1st colony to deny their rights in 1638. By 1660, most southern colonies limited their rights

  21. OlaudahEquiano

  22. Slavery in the Colonies • In 1705, VA created a slave code • Became more harsh over time • Denied rights to property and couldn’t testify against white people • Became an accepted institution in colonial society, especially the southern colonies