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The Southern Colonies. Chapter 3 Section 1. Tobacco. Largely agricultural Based on cash crops tobacco, rice, indigo Require large amounts of labor Led to plantations Demand for tobacco high in Europe, supply low Planters become very wealthy Tobacco very labor intensive

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the southern colonies

The Southern Colonies

Chapter 3 Section 1

tobacco
Tobacco
  • Largely agricultural
  • Based on cash crops
  • tobacco, rice, indigo
  • Require large amounts of labor
  • Led to plantations
  • Demand for tobacco high in Europe, supply low
  • Planters become very wealthy
  • Tobacco very labor intensive
  • Need lots of labor to get rich
the planter elite
The Planter Elite
  • Southern society had many social classes
  • The Planter Elite or gentry were upper class
  • Plantations were self contained communities
  • In 1600s, plantations were small
  • Labor was indentured servants
  • By 1700, used slave labor
  • As wealth increased, so did leisure time
backcountry farmers
Backcountry Farmers
  • Also called yeomen farmers
  • Lived away from coast
  • Worked small plots of land
  • Mainly subsistence farmers
indentured servants
Indentured Servants
  • Often swapped 50 acres (headright system) for passage to colonies
  • Gentry paid their way
  • Got land back when debt paid
  • Had to work 7 years
  • Often died & didn’t claim land
  • Lowest social class
crisis over land
Crisis Over Land
  • Many tenant farmers & indentured servants want to own land
  • 1670s- available land in Piedmont- foothills
  • Gentry owned plantations in the Tidewater (near coast)
  • Didn’t want people in Piedmont, would make Native Americans mad
  • 1675, war between Native Americans and settler in Piedmont
  • Governor stopped the fighting
nathaniel bacon
Nathaniel Bacon
  • Bacon- gentry with land near the piedmont
  • Had been attacked by Native Americans
  • Organized militia and attacked Native Americans
  • Bacon returned to Jamestown
  • Seized city
  • Charged governor with corruption
  • Governor raised army
  • Bacon got sick and died suddenly
  • Rebellion ended
slavery increases in va
Slavery Increases in VA
  • After rebellion, VA expanded to get land for small farmers
  • Plantation owners switch from indentured servants to slaves
  • Why the switch?
  • -don’t have to free slaves
  • -cheap land in PA means fewer Indentured servants
  • -Royal African Company makes slaves plentiful
slavery in the colonies
Slavery in the Colonies
  • OlaudahEquiano- wrote an account of the Middle passage
  • Middle Passage- transport of enslaved Africans to Americas
  • Originally, slaves were treated like indentured servants
  • 1683- Maryland says slaves don’t have the same rights as whites
  • 1705- Virginia slave codes- regulated and defined slavery