The Southern Colonies - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Southern Colonies

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  1. The Southern Colonies Chapter 3 Section 1

  2. Tobacco • Largely agricultural • Based on cash crops • tobacco, rice, indigo • Require large amounts of labor • Led to plantations • Demand for tobacco high in Europe, supply low • Planters become very wealthy • Tobacco very labor intensive • Need lots of labor to get rich

  3. The Planter Elite • Southern society had many social classes • The Planter Elite or gentry were upper class • Plantations were self contained communities • In 1600s, plantations were small • Labor was indentured servants • By 1700, used slave labor • As wealth increased, so did leisure time

  4. Backcountry Farmers • Also called yeomen farmers • Lived away from coast • Worked small plots of land • Mainly subsistence farmers

  5. Indentured Servants • Often swapped 50 acres (headright system) for passage to colonies • Gentry paid their way • Got land back when debt paid • Had to work 7 years • Often died & didn’t claim land • Lowest social class

  6. Crisis Over Land • Many tenant farmers & indentured servants want to own land • 1670s- available land in Piedmont- foothills • Gentry owned plantations in the Tidewater (near coast) • Didn’t want people in Piedmont, would make Native Americans mad • 1675, war between Native Americans and settler in Piedmont • Governor stopped the fighting

  7. Nathaniel Bacon • Bacon- gentry with land near the piedmont • Had been attacked by Native Americans • Organized militia and attacked Native Americans • Bacon returned to Jamestown • Seized city • Charged governor with corruption • Governor raised army • Bacon got sick and died suddenly • Rebellion ended

  8. Slavery Increases in VA • After rebellion, VA expanded to get land for small farmers • Plantation owners switch from indentured servants to slaves • Why the switch? • -don’t have to free slaves • -cheap land in PA means fewer Indentured servants • -Royal African Company makes slaves plentiful

  9. Slavery in the Colonies • OlaudahEquiano- wrote an account of the Middle passage • Middle Passage- transport of enslaved Africans to Americas • Originally, slaves were treated like indentured servants • 1683- Maryland says slaves don’t have the same rights as whites • 1705- Virginia slave codes- regulated and defined slavery