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The Southern Colonies

The Southern Colonies

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The Southern Colonies

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  1. The Southern Colonies

  2. Early Life in the Chesapeake • Disease: Malaria, dysentery, typhoid • ½ born did not survive to their 20s • Population grew slowly, only due to immigration • Immigrants were single men in late teens, early 20s • Men out numbered women 6 to 1 • Many outside of wedlock pregnancies • Few families • Death separated those that existed • Children often died

  3. Southern Way of Life • Plantation Owners • Biggest controllers of the economy, politics, and society, although small farmers biggest population • Balls, banquets, parties • High standard of living

  4. Social Hierarchy • Plantation Owners • Small Farmers • Landless whites • Women • Indentured Servants • Slaves

  5. Women • No right to vote or preach • Some women allowed to own property due to high death tolls of husbands.

  6. The Economy • Plantation Economy  Each grew cash crop • Maryland, VA, NC – tobacco • SC, Georgia – rice and indigo • No towns, b/c no need for markets • Plantations near rivers so crops could be shipped to New England or Europe. • Needed more labor

  7. Indentured Servants • Lower than women on social ladder • No rights while a servant • Many would die during servitude • After serving, forced to poor life in western part of the colonies

  8. Headright System • Employed by VA and MD • Encourage importation of servant workers • Masters would receive 50 acres for paying the passage for coming to the New World

  9. Bacon’s Rebellion • Freed servants increasingly frustrated • No Women • No Land • Forced into backcountry • Problems with Natives • In 1676, a rebellion led by 29 yr old Nathaniel Bacon against Governor Berkeley and all local Natives • Many died of disease during the rebellion, Berkeley able to crush the uprising, hung 20 rebels • Rebellion Crushed, Tensions remained between wealthy and poor

  10. The Slave Trade

  11. Slavery • Grew tremendously after 1680 • Lucky to survive the voyage to the colonies • 80-90% worked in fields • The others worked in the house cooking, cleaning, and raising the masters children • Punishments: whippings, beatings • Full time work for life beginning at age 12 until death • Acceptable to murder slaves during punishments

  12. He (the slave) is called up in the morning at daybreak, and is seldom allowed time enough to swallow three mouthfuls of hominy, or hoecake, but is driven out immediately to the field to hard labor, at which he continues, without intermission until noon… About noon is the time he eats his dinner, and he is seldom allowed an hour for that purpose…They then return to severe labor, which continues in the field until dusk in the evening. ~ John Ferdinand Smyth

  13. Culture of Slaves • Basket weaving, pottery, musical traditions, oral stories, and dances • Created new families when real ones were torn apart

  14. Rebellion of Slaves • Passive Rebellion: Slow Downs, faking illness, breaking tools • Aggressive Rebellion: The Stono Rebellion • 1739, 20 slaves gathered outside of Charleston • Killed several white planter families • White militia later surrounded the group – those not killed in fighting were executed. • Result: Harsher slave laws  Black Codes