The Southern Colonies RJ Shorter, Nick Misketis, Joseph Wanzeller, Sam Davis, Zack Palantzas
Background Knowledge Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7FLMPnDdgxo
Settlement • In1606 the London company set out to settle North America. • When they arrived in America the natives forced them back so they had to find a safer place to settle. • The decided to go further up the peninsula 60 miles up the James River. • This town was further know as Jamestown.
#Struggle The Struggle to Survive • The colonists had a hard time settling in Jamestown. • Disease, an unhealthy settlement site, attacks from natives, and starvation to make settling harder. • Captain John Smith led them through the toughest times. • Many of the problems were because of the London Company. The company sent jewelers and goldsmiths in order to make money instead of sending enough carpenters. This meant not enough houses could be put up immediately because of this 500 settlers died in the first few years.
The End of the London Company • Mismanagement eventually cost the London Company’s charter. • Eventually more people including craftsman arrived in Jamestown but even with the additional 4000 people Jamestown's struggles didn’t end. • The colonists treated the natives poorly and the natives eventually decided to attack killing 350 people. • An investigation found that the poorly governed people were dying quicker than they could be replaced. The company was dissolved and King James took control of the colony.
Growth of Virginia • In the beginning Natives learned to grow corn, beans, squash, and tobacco. • Tobacco became a profitable cash crop for Virginia • In 1612, a man names John Rolfe planted some West Indies tobacco seeds. • When John Rolfe finished harvesting the seeds, the tobacco exports grew rapidly. • In 1640, almost 1.5 million pounds of tobacco entered London.
Meeting the Demand for Labor • Tobacco is a very intensive crop. • Homeless children found on the streets were sent to server as apprentices to trades people in the colony. • Farmers who lost their land had to do the same as the children. • Workers for wealthy settlers were called “Indentured Servants” • Indentured Servants work for 5-7 years. • After the 5-7 years passed, the Servants were free to their own land.
The Introduction of Slave Labor • In 1619 a Dutch Warship brought 20 enslaved Africans to Jamestown. • Virginians bought the Africans for labour. • Africans were first treated like Indentured Servants, many earning freedom after 5-7 years. • Slavery became a permanent inherited condition. • Slavery was first recognized in Virginia in 1661.
Governing Virginia • Economy first depended on slavery which was known as the ruling class. • The war devastated the economy and the poor economic conditions produced bands of homeless people. • In 1676, many angry people were brought together to meet with Nathaniel Bacon at the government. • Several months later, the angry community burned down Jamestown and the rebellion lost its momentum.
Change in Labor • Like mentioned in previous slides, labor was most reliable on slaves. • They had no freedom and could easily be punished. • Identification was easy and escape was difficult because they were Black. • African slavery expanded after 1670 because of this.
The Growth of Self-Government • In the beginning, government was ruled by a council and appointed by a Governor. • During 1619, the London company gave the settlers a voice in government by permitting the first representative assembly called the House of Burgesses. • The House Of Burgesses was able to appoint laws, along with the council and governor. • Later on, King James I took control from the London Company, appointed the governor, and this made Virginia a royal colony. • Over the years, the House gained more power and gained control over taxes and became the “power of the purse”
The Carolinas • The colonies were founded in 1663. • South Carolina offered a better harbor than North Carolina, resulting in attracting more settlers. • North Carolina in 1860 was a slave state in which about 1/3 of the population were enslaved African Americans. • The cotton gin made the soil of the lowlands very profitable for plantations.
Maryland • In 1632 King Charles I gave Lord Baltimore, a grant of 10 million acres north of Virginia. • George Calvert became proprietor of the Maryland colony, meaning that he had authority over it’s government. • Maryland was intended to be a refuge for Catholics. Soon, however, more Protestants settled in Maryland and actually outnumbered the Catholics. • Cecil Calvert offered religious freedom to all Christian settlers. Later the legislative assembly of Maryland affirmed this freedom by the Toleration Act of 1649 the first of its kind in America.
Georgia • Georgia was the last of 13 English colonies. • Its proprietor, James Oglethorpe wanted Georgia to be both a refuge for debtors and a military outpost against the Spaniards in Florida. • In 1733, Oglethorpe governed with strict controls, forbidding slavery, rum and controlling land sales. • These restrictions limited Georgia’s growth. In the 1740s the trustees who controlled Georgia lifted the restrictions against slavery and rum. • They also let the colonists elect an assembly, but Georgia failed to prosper until after control was returned to the king in 1752.
Fun Facts!! • Jamestown was the first British settlement in North America. • 7 presidents are buried in Virginia: Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Tyler, Taft, and Kennedy. • George Washington’s home Mount Vernon is located in Virginia. • All of the Southern Colonies were named after a person of royalty.