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Memory Episodic Memory & Other Issues Class Website www.psych.neu.edu/coley/psyu466/psyu466.html Outline Episodic v Semantic Memory Encoding Specificity Schemas & Scripts Implicit Memory & Subception Content Knowledge Model of Memory Sensory Memory Short-term Working Memory

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memory

Memory

Episodic Memory & Other Issues

class website
Class Website

www.psych.neu.edu/coley/psyu466/psyu466.html

outline
Outline
  • Episodic v Semantic Memory
  • Encoding Specificity
  • Schemas & Scripts
  • Implicit Memory & Subception
  • Content Knowledge
model of memory
Model of Memory

Sensory

Memory

Short-term

Working

Memory

Long-term

Memory

model of memory5
Model of Memory

F

I

L

T

E

R

Sensory

Memory

Short-term

Working

Memory

Long-term

Memory

model of memory6
Model of Memory

Visual

F

I

L

T

E

R

Central

Exec.

Sensory

Memory

Long-term

Memory

Auditory

model of memory7
Model of Memory

Semantic

Memory

Visual

F

I

L

T

E

R

Central

Exec.

Sensory

Memory

Episodic

Memory

Procedural

Memory

Auditory

semantic episodic memory
Semantic & Episodic Memory
  • What evidence would show that Semantic and Episodic Memory are distinct and independent systems?
  • Amnesia
    • One memory system damaged.
    • One memory system intact.
encoding specificity
Encoding Specificity
  • Memory retrieval is enhanced under conditions similar to the conditions at encoding.
  • Roediger & Payne (1983)
    • Homographs (squash)
    • Studied as “Sports” or “Vegetables”
      • Sports: Soccer, Squash, Basketball…
      • Vegetables: Potatoes, Squash, Carrots…
encoding specificity11
Encoding Specificity

Free Recall

Squash?

Congruous Recall

Sports?

Squash?

Sports

Soccer

Squash

Basketball

Incongruous Recall

Vegetables?

Squash?

model of memory13
Model of Memory

Semantic

Memory

Visual

F

I

L

T

E

R

Central

Exec.

Sensory

Memory

Episodic

Memory

Procedural

Memory

Auditory

schemas
Schemas
  • Large unit of representation that organizes relations among concepts, situations, events, and/or actions in memory.
  • Jane heard the jingling of the ice cream truck. She ran to get her piggy bank and started to shake it. Finally some money came out.
schemas15
Schemas
  • How old is Jane
  • Why did she get the money?
  • Did she turn her piggy bank upside down?
  • Did bills come out?
  • How big was the piggy bank?
  • Where was the piggy bank located?
scripts
Scripts
  • Script: “A knowledge structure containing the sequence of events that usually occurs in a particular common situation.”
    • Going to the Dentist
    • Going to a Restaurant
    • Taking an Exam
schemas scripts implications
Schemas & Scripts: Implications
  • Integration: Info from specific events combined with general knowledge
    • Experience shapes scripts
    • Scripts guide recall
  • Advantages & Disadvantages
  • Implications for Episodic-Semantic distinction?
model of memory18
Model of Memory

Semantic

Memory

Visual

F

I

L

T

E

R

Central

Exec.

Sensory

Memory

Episodic

Memory

Procedural

Memory

Auditory

implicit memory
Right Ear:

Essay, asked to shadow

Left Ear:

Homophone word pairs (son/sun)

First word biased the interpretation (youngest/rising)

“rising sun… taxi fare…”

Implicit Memory
implicit memory20
Implicit Memory
  • Asked to
    • Summarize essay
    • Recognition test for shadowed words/homophones
    • Oral spelling test including homophones
      • “sun… fare…”
  • Spelling primed w/o subject awareness
model of memory21
Model of Memory

Semantic

Memory

Visual

F

I

L

T

E

R

Central

Exec.

Sensory

Memory

Episodic

Memory

Procedural

Memory

Auditory

subception
Subception
  • Greenwald et al. (1991)
  • Subliminal learning, self-help, etc.
  • Used 2 commercially available tapes
    • Memory, Self Esteem
  • Design
    • Pretest: Mem, S-E
    • Given a tape, listened daily for month
    • Posttest: Mem, S-E, Self ratings on Improvement
greenwald et al results
Greenwald et al., Results
  • Self-improvement ratings corresponded to tape label.
  • Test scores improved on both measures.
  • Improvement unrelated to content of tapes.
memory content knowledge
Memory & Content Knowledge
  • Chi (1978)
  • Child chess experts
  • Adult chess novices
  • Memory for
    • Chess positions
    • Digit span
long term memory summary
Long Term Memory: Summary
  • Semantic Memory
    • Hierarchical Networks
    • Spreading Activation
  • Episodic Memory
    • Classic Effects (primacy, recency, etc.)
    • Eyewitness Testimony
  • Schemas/Scripts
    • Integrate general knowledge and specific events.
  • Separate Semantic & Episodic Systems?
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