Memory • ability to store, retain, and recall information and experiences • Your memory is your mind’s storehouse, the reservoir of your accumulated experiences
Memory • Memory involves three fundamental processes: • Encoding • Storage • Retrieval
Memory – Information Processing • Encoding – putting into • Storage – keeping • Retrieval –getting out
Maintenance Rehearsal Long-term memory Sensory Memory Working or Short-term Memory Encoding Attention Sensory Input Retrieval Three Stages of Memory • Three memory stores that differ in function, capacity and duration
Memory – Information Processing • “Three-Stage Processing” Model • Memories are stored in a three-step process of sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory
Memory – Information Processing • Sensory Memory – the immediate, initial recording of sensory information; fleeting, to-be-remembered information
Sensory Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory • Function—holds information long enough to be processed for basic physical characteristics • Capacity—large • can hold many items at once • Duration—very brief retention of images • .3 sec for visual info • 2 sec for auditory info
Sensory Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory • Sensory memory forms automatically, without attention or interpretation • Attention is needed to transfer information to working memory
Sensory Memory • Visual sensory memory • aka iconic memory • Auditory sensory memory • aka echoic memory • Which lasts longer?
Sensory Memory G Z E P R K O D B T X F
Sensory Memory • How many letters can you recall? • Most people can recall four or five letters in that short of a time span, but know that there were more.
Sensory Memory • Sensory memory retention is what is used when you see a face in the crowd for a split second….you recognize features quickly, determine she/he was cute, but then you can’t remember any details of their face
Sensory Memory • Was he/she cute? • What was he/she wearing? What color was it? • What color was his/her hair? How long was it? • What color was her lipstick? • What was his/her facial expression? • What color were his/her eyes?
Memory – Information Processing • Short-Term Memory – activated memory that holds a few items briefly • Aka working memory • This is where encoding starts
Encoding • the processing of information into the memory system • 3 kinds
Types of Encoding • Visual (Mental) Encoding – the encoding of picture images • Acoustic Encoding – the encoding of sounds • Semantic Encoding – the encoding of meanings, especially of words
Visual / Mental Encoding • Remembering visual information is often easier than remembering formulas, definitions, names and dates • Applying mental pictures to words and concepts CAT
Encoding – Mental Imagery • When encoding a list of words, apply a mental picture to each word. IE. Typewriter, fire, cigarette, scary.
Auditory Encoding - Sounds • auditory encoding enhances the processing of information by applying rhyme schemes, stories, songs, etc. to the information.
Encoding – Auditory • 30 Days has September, April, June and November. All the rest have 31, except February… • In fourteen hundred and ninety-two Columbus sailed the Ocean Blue. • "i" before "e," except after "c," or in sounding like "ay" as in "neighbor" or "weigh."
Auditory Encoding - Sounds • Beer before liquor, never been sicker…liquor before beer, you’re in the clear • Lefty loosey, righty tighty • “If the glove doesn’t fit, you must acquit,” is easily remembered by jurors when a lawyer is fighting for his client’s innocence.
Encoding – Auditory Encoding • Songs are another great way to remember things – SCHOOL HOUSE ROCK !!
Encoding – Semantic • processing and encoding of sensory input that has particular meaning or can be applied to a context • Which is easier to remember? • Rdeckeroctnaonleyko • entrance key lock door
Let’s try it • Concrete words lab
Short-Term Memory • 2 important characteristics: • STM can contain seven, plus or minus two, "chunks" of information • Items remain in STM around twenty to thirty seconds
Short-Term Memory • This type of memory increases as children get older… …but decreases in old age
Activity • Pens and pencils DOWN • Look at the picture • You will have15 seconds
Short-Term Memory • Write down the words of all the pictures you can remember. • How many objects did you remember?
Short-Term Memory • We can only consciously process a very limited amount of information in our short-term memory.
Short-Term Memory • Overload your short-term memory?
Sensory Memory Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Attention Stage 2
Sensory Memory Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Attention Short-Term Memory • Function—conscious processing of information • where information is actively worked on • Capacity—limited (holds 7+/-2 items) • Duration—brief storage (about 30 seconds)
Capacity Lab • One partner face the board, the other face the back wall
9754 • 6419 • 68259 • 37148 • 913825 • 648327 • 5963827 • 5316842 • 86951372 • 51739826 • 719384273 • 163875942 • 9152438162 • 1528467318
Maintenance Rehearsal Sensory Memory Working or Short-term Memory Attention Sensory Input Maintenance Rehearsal • Mental or verbal repetition of information allows information to remain in working memory longer than the usual 30 seconds