Memory • Introduction • Stage Model of Memory • Process Model of Memory • Problems in Memory • The Biology of Memory
II. Stage Model of Memory • A.k.a. Atkinson-Shiffrin Memory Model
Two Examples of Sensory Memory • Iconic: • brief memory for things we have seen • Echoic: • brief memory for things we have heard
S U A B N A R S M I B O U I U S A N B A I R S I B M I O U
III. Memory Processes Encoding Retrieval Storage • Getting information into memory • Recalling or using previously encoded and stored information • Retaining information in memory
Encoding • The process of transforming information into a form that can be stored and later retrieved.
Types of Encoding • Automatic: encoding that happens without having to try • Effortful: encoding that only happens when the proper effort is made
Memory Tests • List 1: How positive or negative is the word (on a scale from 1-9)? • List 2: Is there an “e” in the word (Y or N)?
List 1 • coin, skate, church, fork, trunk, pocket, trail, flower, clock, bank, paint, time, deep, bird, sample, move, rain, pipe
List 2 • shade, desk, money, pitch, garden, hammer, dress, horse, month, door, belt, train, count, fire, song, bureau, foot, magic
Depth of Processing • “Deeper” encoding results in easier recall • Deep encoding focuses on things such as meaning, comprehension, or understanding
General Memory Principle • If the conditions of encoding are similar to the conditions of retrieval, then recall is better.
Context-Dependent Memory If the environment of encoding is similar to the environment of retrieval, then recall is better. • Words heard on land are better recalled when on land. • Words heard under water are better recalled when under water. • Recall was poorer when the learning and testing contexts did not match. Percentage of words recalled 40% 30 20 10 Water/water Water/land Land/water Land/land 0 Different contexts for hearing and recall Same contexts for hearing and recall
State-Dependent Memory • If your internal state during encoding is similar to your internal state during retrieval, then recall is better.
Mood-Congruent Recall • We have better recall for events that match our current mood.
Flashbulb Memories • Vivid memories of emotionally significant events. • Research suggests that they can be surprisingly inaccurate for some people • Vivid recall doesn’t always translate to increased accuracy
Intelligent Thought & Behavior • Problem Solving • Obstacles to Thinking & Reasoning • Intelligence & Intelligence Testing
I. Problem Solving • Problem Solving Steps • Frame/interpret the problem
I. Problem Solving • Problem Solving Steps • Frame/interpret the problem • Generate many possible solutions/brainstorm • Test a solution (algorithms, heuristics, trial & error, insight, etc…) • Evaluate results • Repeat steps 1-3 if necessary
“Would you like to buy a magazine subscription?”(from Dan Ariely’s book Predictably Irrational) 16% 0% 84% 68% X 32%
Confirmation Bias • The tendency to: • search for information that supports our beliefs and… • ignore or distort contradictory evidence. • The death penalty study.
Fixation • The inability to see a problem from a new perspective • Examples: • Mental Set: The tendency to persist in solving problems with solutions that have worked in the past. • Functional Fixedness: The tendency to view objects as functioning only in their usual, customary, or traditional ways.