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Memory. “Learning is the process by which we acquire knowledge about the world, while memory is the process by which that knowledge is encoded, stored and later retrieved.” Eric Kandel Computer-based model. Memory.

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    1. Memory • “Learning is the process by which we acquire knowledge about the world, while memory is the process by which that knowledge is encoded, stored and later retrieved.” • Eric Kandel • Computer-based model

    2. Memory • “Learning refers to the process by which experiences change our nervous system and hence our behaviour. We refer to these changes as memory… Experiences are not ‘stored’, rather they change the way we perceive, perform, think and plan. They do so by physically changing the structure of the nervous system, altering neural circuits that participate in perceiving, performing, thinking and planning.” • Neil Carlson

    3. Learning and Memory Task • Verbal Paired Associates • Get a piece of paper and pen. • Write 1 to 8 down the left side.

    4. Modal Memory Model (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968) W. W. Norton

    5. Atkinson and Shifrin’s model rehearsal Iconic/ Echoic Sensory registers recoding STM LTM receptors unlimited ~1s 1-~5s

    6. STM is Limited • I’m going to read 16 numbers out loud. After listening to the numbers, you will be asked to recall as many as you can in the correct order.

    7. STM is Limited • 1 8 6 7 1 8 1 2 1 4 9 2 2 0 0 3

    8. STM is Limited • Now I’m going to read four dates out loud, saying each number individually. The first three years (12 numbers) are important dates in history and the last year is the current year. After listening, you will be asked to recall as many of the numbers in the correct order as possible.

    9. STM is Limited • Memory span. Only about 7 items (plus or minus 2) can be reported in sequence (Miller, 1956).

    10. Learn these: MTY

    11. Rapid decay Count backwards from 108 in 7’s

    12. What were the three letters? MTY

    13. STM is Limited • Memory span. Only about 7 items can be reported in sequence (Miller, 1956). • Peterson & Peterson (1959). Rapid decay of memory for short lists if rehearsal prevented. • For example, phone numbers are “lost” if interrupted while rehearsing

    14. Serial position effect Learn this list

    15. Serial position effect Limes, eggs, crackers, vanilla, radish, ketchup, soup, cereal, peas, syrup, cheese, potato, pork, carrots

    16. Serial position effect Write down as many as you can remember.

    17. Serial position effect • How many students included: Limes ____ Eggs _____ Crackers _____ Vanilla ______ Radish ______ Ketchup ______ Soup _____ Cereal _____ Peas _____ Syrup _____ Cheese _____ Potato _____ Pork _____ Carrots _____

    18. 07.06 W. W. Norton

    19. STM is Limited • Memory span. Only about 7 items can be reported in sequence (Miller, 1956). • Peterson & Peterson (1959). Rapid decay of memory for short lists if rehearsal prevented. • Recency in free recall. This is eliminated after 30s of interference (Glanzer & Cunitz, 1966).

    20. STM is Limited • Memory span. Only about 7 items can be reported in sequence (Miller, 1956). • Peterson & Peterson (1959). Rapid decay of memory for short lists if rehearsal prevented. • Recency in free recall. This is eliminated after 30s of interference (Glanzer & Cunitz, 1966). All these measures suggest that a limited amount of recent information can be stored temporarily.

    21. Acoustic Similarity on STM • Learn this list: • D V E T G P C

    22. Acoustic similarity on STM • Write down the sequence

    23. Acoustic similarity • D V E T G P C • Memorize this sequence: • K R T H D S W

    24. Acoustic similarity • Which was more difficult? • DVETGPC or • KRTHDSW

    25. 07.05 W. W. Norton

    26. Long-term memory • Not capacity limited • Different types/divisions such as implicit versus explicit

    27. Explicit vs implicit memory Techniques for investigation • Explicit • Free recall • Cued recall (e.g. paired associates) • Recognition • Implicit (vs incidental) • Skills (savings on relearning)

    28. 07.02 W. W. Norton

    29. Semantic vs Episodic memory (Tulving) ‘LTM’ Landauer and Freedman, 1968; Collins and Quillian,1969 Animal (breathes, moves) Bird (has feathers, can fly) Dog (has fur, barks) Canary (can sing) Alsatian (large, fierce)

    30. Typicality Is this a bird? Robin Sparrow Duck Ostrich Aeroplane • Good exemplars are quicker

    31. Negative exemplars Is this a fruit? Cherry Carrot Brick • Usually slower than positive exemplars • Slowest if share common attributes

    32. Proximity to boundary Reaction time Close negative (Rabbit) Distant negative (House) Typical (Robin) Atypical (Ostrich) Borderline (Aeroplane)

    33. Proximity to boundary Schizophrenic patients Reaction time Close negative (Rabbit) Distant negative (House) Typical (Robin) Atypical (Ostrich) Borderline (Aeroplane) Is this a bird?

    34. 3 Processes of LTM • Encoding: information is processed prior to storage • Storage: the information is preserved in some form • Retrieval: the information is recovered and reported • Forgetting may be due to deficiencies in any of the these three key processes

    35. Encoding • Encoding is an active process • Selective attention • “next-in-line effect” • Levels of processing • Qualitative differences in how people attend to information • Three progressive levels (Craik & Lockhart, 1972)

    36. Encoding: Levels of Processing • Shallow processing • Structure encoding • “Is the word written in capital letters?” • Intermediate processing • Phonemic encoding • “Does the word rhyme with weight?” • Deep processing • Semantic encoding

    37. Encoding: Levels of Processing • Deep processing • Semantic encoding • Elaboration • Linking stimulus to other information at time of encoding • Examples that illustrate an idea

    38. Encoding: Levels of Processing • Deep processing • Semantic encoding • Elaboration • Linking stimulus to other information at time of encoding • Examples that illustrate an idea • Visual imagery

    39. Encoding: Levels of Processing • Deep processing • Semantic encoding • Elaboration • Linking stimulus to other information at time of encoding • Examples that illustrate an idea • Visual imagery • Self-referent encoding • Deciding how or whether the info is personally relevant

    40. Levels of Processing Theory • The deeper the level of processing, the longer and more durable the memories will be. • Problems • How do we define “level”? • How do we determine whether one level is deeper than another?

    41. Visual Imagery: dual code theory Paivio (1971) proposed that imagery and verbal memory were two independent ways of remembering an item. This is supported by the fact that: • Concrete words are remembered better than abstract words • Pictures are remembered better than words.

    42. Suppose you wanted to remember the following list • Elephant • Flower • Desk • Cold • Key • Duck • Boat • High • Tea • Gloves

    43. Mnemonics One is a bun Two is a shoe Three is a tree Four is a door Five is a hive Six is sticks Seven is heaven Eight is a plate Nine is a mine