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Memory - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Memory. liudexiang. contents. The sensory registers Short term memory Long term memory forgetting. The sensory registers. *Memory : the ability to remember the things that we have experienced, imagined, and learned.

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  • The sensory registers

  • Short term memory

  • Long term memory

  • forgetting

The sensory registers
The sensory registers

  • *Memory : the ability to remember the things that we have experienced, imagined, and learned.

  • Information-processing model: a computerlike model used to describe the way humans encode, store, and retrieve information.

The sensory registers1
The sensory registers

  • Sensory registers: entry points for raw information from the senses.

  • Attention: the selection of some incoming information for further processing.

Short term memory stm
Short-term memory (STM)

  • *Short-term memory (STM) : Working memory; briefly stores and processes selected information from the sensory registers.

Primary tasks
Primary tasks

  • Store new information

  • Work on the new information

Capacity of stm
Capacity of STM

  • C X W

  • M N K T Y

  • R P J H B Z S

  • G B M P V Q F J D

  • E G Q W J P B R H K A

Capacity of stm1
Capacity of STM

  • *Chunking: the grouping of information into meaningful units for easier handling by short-term memory.

Encoding in stm
Encoding in STM

  • We encode verbal information for storage in STM phonological—that is, according to how it sounds.

  • Some material is stored in visual form, and other information is retained on the basis of its meaning.

Maintaining stm
Maintaining STM

  • Rote rehearsal : retaining information in memory simply by repeating it over and over.

Long term memory
Long-term memory

  • Long-term memory (LTM): The portion of memory that is more or less permanent, corresponding to everything we “ know .”

Capacity of ltm
Capacity of LTM

  • Long-term memory can store a vast amount of information for many years.

Encoding in ltm
Encoding in LTM

  • Some LTM memories are codes in terms of nonverbal images: shapes, sounds, smells, tastes, and so on.

  • Most of the information in LTM seems to be encoded in terms of meaning.

Serial position effect
*Serial position effect

  • Serial position effect : The finding that when asked to recall a list of unrelated items, performance is better for the items at the beginning and end of the list.

The recency effect
*The recency effect

  • The recency effect occurs because the last items that are presented are still contained in STM and thus are available to recall.

The primacy effect
*The primacy effect

  • The primacy effect reflects the opportunity to rehearse the first few items in the list--- increasing their likelihood of being transferred to LTM.

Maintaining ltm
Maintaining LTM

  • Rote rehearsal

  • Elaborative rehearsal: The linking of new information in STM to familiar material stored in LTM.

  • Mnemonics: Techniques that make material easier to remember.

  • Schema: A set of beliefs or expectations about something that is based on past experience.

Improving your memory
Improving your memory

  • Develop motivation

  • Practice memory skills

  • Be confident in your ability to remember

  • Minimize distractions

  • Stay focused

  • Use mental imagery

Improving your memory1
Improving your memory

  • Make connections between new material and other information already stored in your LTM

  • Use retrieval cues

  • Rely on more than memory alone

  • Be aware that your own personal schemata may distort your recall of events

Types of ltm
*Types of LTM

  • Episodic memory: the portion of LTM that stores personally experienced events.

  • Semantic memory: the portion of LTM that stores general facts and information.

  • Procedural memory: the portion of LTM that stores information relating to skills, habits, and other perceptual-motor tasks.

  • Emotional memory: learned emotional responses to various stimuli.

Explicit and implicit memory
Explicit and implicit memory

  • Explicit memory : memory for information that we can readily express in words and are aware of having; these memories can be intentionally retrieved from memory.

  • Implicit memory : memory for information that we cannot readily express in words and may not be aware of having; these memories cannot be intentionally retrieved from memory.


  • *Decay theory : A theory that argues that the passage of time causes forgetting.

  • Retrograde amnesia: The ability to recall events preceding an accident or injury, but without loss of earlier memory.


  • *Retroactive interference : the process by which new information interfere with information already in memory

  • *Proactive interference: the process by which information already in memory interfere with new information