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Memory. SENSORY STORE. WORKING MEMORY. LONG-TERM MEMORY. A little experiment in memory …. Courtesy of NASA Ames Cognition Laboratory (http://human-factors.arc.nasa.gov/cognition/tutorials/ModelOf/memory5.html)

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memory
Memory

SENSORY

STORE

WORKING

MEMORY

LONG-TERM MEMORY

a little experiment in memory
A little experiment in memory …
  • Courtesy of NASA Ames Cognition Laboratory (http://human-factors.arc.nasa.gov/cognition/tutorials/ModelOf/memory5.html)
  • Step 1: take out a blank sheet of paper and put “List 1” on the top. Then put your pencil/pen down.
  • Step 2: listen to the list of words carefully.
  • Step 3: after the entire list is finished, you will be instructed to write down as many of the words as you can remember.
  • Step 4: check your list against the one I show you and write the number correct at the top of the page.
  • Repeat steps 1 – 4 with List 2 and List 3.
results from an earlier experiment
Results from an earlier experiment

http://human-factors.arc.nasa.gov/cognition/tutorials/ModelOf/memory5.html

impact of memory on system design
Impact of memory on system design ...
  • Power:
    • Vast store of knowledge
  • Limitations:
    • Forgetting
    • Limited working memory
    • Attention
just the facts about memory
“Just the facts” about memory ...
  • Three subsystems of memory:
    • Short-term sensory store
    • Working memory (short-term memory) – WM/STM
    • Long-term memory - LTM
  • These subsystems differ in several ways
    • Capacity
      • Sensory store __________________________________
      • WM is ______________________________
        • (the "magic number" 7 plus or minus 2)
      • LTM __________________________
just the facts about memory cont
“Just the facts” about memory … (cont.)
  • Differences in memory subsystems (cont.)
    • Duration
      • Sensory store _____________________________________
      • WM _____________________________________________
      • LTM _____________________________
    • Codes
      • Sensory store ____________________
      • WM ____________________________
      • LTM ____________________________
how it works or doesn t

Visuospatial Sketchpad

Phonological Loop

Central

Executive

  • Stored in analog spatial form
  • From visual sensory system or LTM
  • Stored in acoustical form
  • Info kept active through rehearsal
How it works (or doesn’t) ...
  • Working Memory (WM)
    • A model (from Baddeley)
wm how it works or doesn t
WM: How it works (or doesn’t) ...
  • Restrictions:
    • Capacity - 7 + 2 “items” of information.
    • Time - 7 - 70 second “half-life”
  • Some solutions ...
    • Increase capacity by “chunking”
      • Create meaningful sequence already present in LTM
      • Experiments:
        • Subject could recall > 20 binary digits by coding into octal (0101111 57)
        • Subject could recall > 80 digits by coding into running times (353431653  3 min, 53.4 sec mile; 3 hr, 16 min, 53 sec marathon)
        • Chess masters recall board with great accuracy; "chunk" into strategic patterns
wm how it works or doesn t1
WM: How it works (or doesn’t) ...
  • Examples of everyday chunking:
    • Parsing - break up into chunks
      • phone numbers, social security numbers
    • Reading musical staffs ("Every Good Boy Does Fine")
    • Medical school mnemonics
    • Songs: constraints of rhythm, rhyme
      • "We Didn't Start the Fire"
      • "Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat"
      • Preamble to the US Constitution
  • Other approaches to handling WM limitations:
    • Minimize load
    • Visual “echoes”
    • Exploit different codes (e.g., spatial, verbal, etc.)
how it works or doesn t1
How it works (or doesn’t) ...
  • Long-term memory (LTM)
    • Types
      • Semantic memory - general knowledge
      • Event memory
        • Episodic - an event in the past
        • Prospective - remember to do something
    • Basic mechanisms:
      • Storage - through active rehearsal, involvement, or link to an existing memory.
        • Alternatively - “everything gets in”
      • Retrieval - depends on
        • item strength
        • number and strength of associations to other items
ltm how it works or doesn t
LTM: How it works (or doesn’t) ...
  • Organization of information in LTM
    • Most-used information is semantic
      • retrieval depends on semantic associations
      • good design builds / uses appropriate semantic associations
    • The network of semantic associations around specific topics are schemas
      • Schemas involving sequences of activities are scripts
      • Schemas concerning how equipment and systems work are mental models
ltm how it works or doesn t1
LTM: How it works (or doesn’t) ...
  • What it means for design …
    • Encourage regular use of info
    • Standardize
    • Design information to be remembered
    • Provide memory aids
memory versus knowledge in the world
Memory versus knowledge “in the world”
  • When do you not need to remember something?
    • (Why do you not need to remember what a penny looks like?)
  • When the knowledge is already "in the world"!
    • (Because you only need to recognize a penny - and nothing else looks like it.)
knowledge in the world
Knowledge “in the world”
  • Affordances
  • Constraints
  • Mappings
  • Conceptual Models
  • Visible Structure
    • Reveals:
      • 1. affordances
      • 2. constraints
      • 3. mappings
affordance
Affordance
  • "refers to perceived or actual properties of the thing, primarily those fundamental properties that determine just how the thing could possibly be used.” (Norman, pg. 9)
    • Affordances of objects: e.g., chairs, tables, cups
    • Affordances of materials: e.g., glass, wood
    • Affordances of controls: How are things operated?
constraints
Constraints
  • Those aspects of a device or material that limit its perceived possible uses.
    • Physical: size, shape, possibilities for movement, etc.
    • Semantic: meaning of the situation
      • related to the notion of “conceptual models”
    • Cultural: defined by tradition, meaning within the culture (e.g., the color red, triangular shape)
    • Logical: placement of controls, direction of movement, etc.
      • related to “mappings”
examples1
Examples ...
  • Physical constraints
  • Semantic constraints
  • Cultural constraints
  • Logical constraints
conceptual models
Conceptual Models
  • Our understanding of the way things work, how things are put together, cause & effect, etc.
    • Depends on the visibility of the system structure, the timing of the feedback, and consistency of cause/effect relationships
    • Builds a framework for storing knowledge about a system or device “in the head.”
    • Used to develop explanations, recreate forgotten knowledge, and make predictions.
mappings
Mappings
  • Making the connection between how things work and how we think they work.
    • Some examples … (stay tuned - more in the display design lesson!)
      • Principle of Pictorial Realism: Displayed quantities should correspond to the human's internal model of these quantities.
      • Congruence: The linear motion of a control and display should be along the same axis and the rotational motion of a control and display should be in the same direction.
      • Principle of the Moving Part: The direction of movement of an indicator on a display should be compatible with the direction of movement of an operator's internal representation of the variable whose change is indicated.
      • Spatial compatibility: The spatial arrangement of displays should be preserved in the controls.
your turn
Your turn …
  • Recall the question regarding Benjamin Franklin given to you as homework last time.
    • List a few of the things you’ve thought of that Mr. Franklin would be able to “figure out” in your apartment/home.
    • Describe how Mr. Franklin is able to figure these things out in terms of the affordances, constraints, mappings, and visible structure.

Use the following table to help organize your answer.