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MEMORY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Memory is important for information processing, particularly when we rely on our previous experiences It is important in determining the motor programme chosen to send information to the muscles Memory can be divided into three components : Short term sensory store - stss

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Presentation Transcript
Memory is important for information processing, particularly when we rely on our previous experiences

It is important in determining the motor programme chosen to send information to the muscles

Memory can be divided into three components:

Short term sensory store - stss

Short term memory - stm

Long term memory - ltm

short term sensory store
Short term sensory store
  • All stimuli enter the stss but remain for a very short time; 0.25 – 1 second
  • The stss has a very large capacity
  • It acts as a filter
  • The perceptual mechanism determines which information is relevant and attention is focussed towards this. This is the recognition aspect of perception
  • Irrelevant information is filtered out, leaves the stss and is quickly replaced by new information
  • The filtering process is known as selective attenton
  • The process of focussing on the important and ignoring the irrelevant also helps us to react quickly
  • It is, therefore, very important to be able to recognise relevant cues
ssts improving efficiency
Ssts-improving efficiency
  • EXPERIENCE – an experienced volleyballer knows which cues to look for when blocking
  • AROUSAL – the more alert you are the more likely you are to select relevant cues, eg. In tennis an alert player is more likely to notice the speed, spin and direction of the ball
  • QUALITY OF INSTRUCTION – beginners do not know which cues are relevant. Teachers/ coaches can direct attention to the correct cues
  • INTENSITY OF STIMULUS – the effectiveness of the senses when detecting speed, sound, size, shape, colour etc.
short term memory
Short term memory
  • Referred to as the ‘work place’
  • Incoming information is compared to that stored in the ltm
  • Has a limited capacity: 5 – 9 pieces of information for approximately 30 seconds
  • The number of items can be increased by ‘chunking’
  • The period of time can be extended by repeating/ rehearsing the information
  • Information considered important is rehearsed or practised and passed to the long term memory – this process is known as ‘encoding’
long term memory
  • Holds information that has been well learned and practised
  • Its capacity is thought to be limitless
  • Information is held for a long time – perhaps permanently
  • Motor programmes are stored in the ltm as a result of practice – this is why you never forget how to swim or ride a bike even if you have not done so for a long time.
  • The ltm is the recognition part of the perceptual process when the stored information in the ltm is retrieved and compared to the new information which is then recognised
strategies to improve retention and retrieval
REHEARSAL/ PRACTICE – Practice carries the skill to and fro between the stm and ltm establishing a memory trace. Elite performers practice their skills until they have been ‘over learned’ / ‘grooved’ and become automatic

ASSOCIATION/ LINKING – new information should be linked with that previously learned eg. Sports specific skills linked with fundamental motor skills – javelin throw linked with overarm throw

SIMPLICITY – new information should be kept simple, more complex information can be added later. Avoid teaching similar skills at the same time as they may interfere with each other.

ORGANISATION – eg. A trampoline sequence should be earned in the order the movements will be performed

IMAGERY – a mental picture aids memory. Demonstrating skills alows a performer to create an image of the movement

MEANINGFUL – if the learner considers information relevant it is more likely to be remembered

CHUNKING – items of information are more easily remembered if grouped together

UNIQUENESS – if information is presented in an unusual or different way it is more likely to be remembered

ENJOYMENT – if the learner is having fun the experience is more likely to be remembered

POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT – praise and encouragement when learning can aid retention. This can also be motivational and includes rewards such as badges and certificates

Strategies to improve retention and retrieval