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Memory

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Memory

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  1. Memory • Multiple Memory Systems • Short and Long-term Memory • Declarative and Procedural Memory • Explicit and Implicit Memory • Memory Processes • Attention • Consolidation • Organization and Retrieval • Improving Memory

  2. Memory: Larry Squire Taken from UCSD Neuroscience Series

  3. Multiple Memory Systems:Neuro-physiological and Behavioral Evidence

  4. Neurophysiological Evidence forMultiple Memory Systems • Removal of medial temporal region now known as hippocampus in 1953 • Remembers little of time since operation • Learned only a few new words • Little knowledge of “major” event however, • can speak and understand language • retained skills developed prior to operation • has recollections of events in early life • is conscious ! • Shows procedural skill acquisition Adapted from: Parkin (1993). Memory: Phenomena, Experiments and Theory

  5. HM was functional when it came to procedural tasks

  6. Behavioral Evidence for Multiple Memory Systems: Serial Position Effect

  7. Multiple Memory Systems

  8. Multiple System Memory Models Proposed by Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968)

  9. Multiple System Memory Models Allen Baddeley Dual-Task Paradigms

  10. Long-Term Memory

  11. Long-Term Memory

  12. Long-Term Memory (From Walker, 2006)

  13. Anatomical Sites of Memory

  14. Dual Mode Principle

  15. Visuo-Motor Sequence Learning * * * *

  16. 0 or 250 ms S______________R ___________S___________R….. X 10 / block “produce the sequence” “avoid the sequence”

  17. Egocentric Allocentric (Hikosaka, 2002)

  18. What are stored in Memory:Motor Programs or Internal Models • stored (LTM) (size will depend on practice) • planned before initiation • reduced attention demands

  19. What is Stored?Specific vs.Generalized Motor Program general memory representation of a class of actions that share some invariant characteristics • relative time • relative force • sequencing or ordinal structure concerned with pattern of movement – not specific movement

  20. Raibert (1977)

  21. Parameters Some feature of the movements have to be changed (variant) each time to make the movement fit the circumstance or goal • movement time • movement amplitude • limbs and muscles used

  22. Variations in Movement Time • Can change speed of throw • Does movement pattern change drastically? • Armstrong (1970) • Movement pattern re-produced as fast as possible but proportion times remained the same

  23. Armstrong (1970)

  24. Variations in Amplitude

  25. Variations in Muscles or Limbs

  26. Some examples • Terzuolo & Viviani (1979) • Maraj, Elliott, Lee, & Pollock (1993) • Shapiro et al. (1978)

  27. Terzuolo & Viviani (1979)

  28. Shapiro et al., (1978) (Km/Hr)

  29. Memory Processes From Walker (2006)

  30. Attention • Selective Attention • Divided Attention • Vigilance

  31. Improving Accessibility: Encoding? “The existence of forgetting has never been proved; we only know that some things don’t come to mind” Friedrich Nietzsche (taken from Parkin, 1993) • Study Time • Deliberate Practice • Encoding Specificity Principle • context-dependent memory (Gooden & Baddeley, 1975; Wright & Shea, 1991) • mood-dependent memory (Eich, 1980) • Information Distinctiveness • Elaboration of Information • extant knowledge associations • mnemonic devices • organizational structures (hierarchies) • dual-coding theory and use of imagery

  32. Consolidation Transformation of a memory into a stable, robust state that supports frequent access (declarative or procedural) • Stabilization or Reduction in fragility (resistance to interference) • Off-line improvement (between sessions of practice)

  33. Generic Example of Off-Line Improvement

  34. Consolidation: Sequence Learning Fisher et al., NATURE, 425, 2003

  35. Stabilization and Enhancement Consolidation

  36. Consolidation: Adaptation Shadmehr & Brashers-Krug, The Journal of Neuroscience, 1997, 17(1):409–419

  37. Shadmehr & Brashers-Krug, The Journal of Neuroscience, 1997, 17(1):409–419

  38. Brashers-Krug et al., (1996) Nature, 382, 252-255

  39. Consolidation, Stabilization, and Re-Consolidation • Performance improvements with practice • Consolidation occurs with sleep (for explicit tasks) • Stabilization (resistance to interference) occurs after approximately 6 hrs • Labile memory state can always be re-initiated and then needs re-consolidation

  40. Organization in Memory • General Chunking Phenomena (Novice-expert differences) • Digit Span (Chase & Ericcson, 1981) • Restaurant Orders (Ericcson & Polson, 1988) • Chess (Chase & Simon, 1973) • Basketball (Allard, Graham, & Paarsula, 1980)* • Motor Chunks • Park, J. & Shea, C.H. (2005). The detection and utilization of sequence information: Influence on response structure and effector transfer. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 387-419. *

  41. Motor Chunks: Simplifying ordinal structure

  42. Park, J. & Shea, C.H. (2005). Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 387-419.

  43. Park, J. & Shea, C.H. (2005). Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 387-419.

  44. Park, J. & Shea, C.H. (2005). Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 387-419.

  45. Park, J. & Shea, C.H. (2005). Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 387-419.