Chapter 6 Section 4The War of 1812 Mr. Love US History
The Decision for War • 1808, James Madison becomes President during an international crisis. • Madison wanted to stay out of war. To keep the British from seizing ships, he asked Congress to pass the Non-Intercourse Act, - banned trade with both England and France and would begin trading with whichever country lifted restrictions first. Failed.
The Decision for War • Macon’s Bill Number Two reopened trade with both countries. If either country dropped restrictions then US would stop importing goods from other country. France drops its restrictions so the US no longer trades with England. Soon the British drop their restrictions but war had already been declared on Great Britain.
The Decision for War • South and West wanted war because British restrictions hurt them. Called War Hawks. They also felt the British were to blame for clashes with Natives. Why? • Speculators and natives began to fight. Tecumseh, a Shawnee leader, wanted the Natives to unite to protect their lands. • Battle of Tippecanoe (William Henry Harrison v. Tecumseh) - No real winner and the Natives retreat to Canada (england). • In June 1812, Madison gives in to war.
The Invasion of Canada • We declared war but were not ready to fight. Insufficient troops and equipment, few agreed with the war and financial problems added to the mix. Madison still wants to invade Canada (EHHH!) • Three pronged attack on Canada – major failure. • The next year, Commodore Oliver Perry secretly arranges for the construction of a fleet on Lake Erie. • He is able to defeat the British on the Great Lake. America still gains no land in Canada. Failed attacks on land.
The War Ends • Napoleon is defeated in Europe. British send more troops to deal with the US. • British land near Washington, DC. The capital was seized and burned. The next attack was at Baltimore. Repelled the British. Star-Spangled Banner. • British soldiers moved on NY. Am navy defeat the British and they retreat to Canada.
The War Ends • Opposition grows in NE. The Hartford Convention called for several Constitutional amendments that would increase New England’s political power. • In 1815 the British land near NO. American General Andrew Jackson is victorious. AJ becomes a national hero – celebrity of the time. • Led to a great deal of Nationalism.
The War Ends • Negotiators from both side sign the Treaty of Ghent, ending the war of 1812. (Happened over a month before NO). • War of 1812 increased American prestige overseas and created a new feeling of patriotism and national unity. • However, we still lost this war.