6-4 The War of 1812 Erupts Textbook Pages 189-191
Thomas Jefferson • Popularity soared after the Louisiana Purchase. • In 1806 France and Britain started to seize American ships. • Britain 1,000 • France 500
Grievances Against Britain • Americans focused anger on British • British were using policy of impressment • Impressment – forced any American at sea to be drafted into the British Navy. • Chesapeake – U.S. captain refused to let British board their ship to look for deserters…in return 18 wounded and 3 Americans were killed.
Grievances Against Britain • Jefferson wanted Congress to declare an embargo (ban on exporting products to other countries) • Thought it would hurt Britain, but only hurt U.S. • Embargo Act of 1807 was lifted in 1809
Grievances Against Native Americans • War Hawks • John C. Calhoun (SC) and Henry Clay (KT) leaders of the group • Wanted to go to war with Britain • Didn’t like the presence of Native Americans in Indiana Territory • General William Henry Harrison (governor of the Indiana Territory) invited several Native American chiefs to Fort Wayne, Indiana and persuaded them to sign over 3 million acres of tribal land to U.S. Government
Grievances Against Native Americans • Confederacy of Native Americans led my Shawnee chief Tecumseh began organizing to fight for their homeland. • 1811 Tecumseh’s brother was defeated in an attack (Battle of Tippecanoe) • During that fight War Hawks found out that N.Americans had gotten supplies from Canadian-British • They were furious!
The War Brings Mixed Results • James Madison (Virginian Republican) won election of 1808 • Decided to go to war with Britain in 1812 • Congress approved the declaration of war.
Failure in Canada • Republican funding cuts left American military ill-prepared • First year battles were disastrous • By the second year America was winning against Britain and N. Americans. • Tecumseh was killed at the Battle of Thames
British Burn the White House • By 1814 the British were burning towns up and down the Atlantic coast. • Washington, D.C. had to be evacuated. • British burned the Capitol, the White House, and other public buildings. • General Andrew Jackson (TN) gathered troops to protected New Orleans. • Defeated the British
British Burn the White House • Treaty of Ghent was signed on X-mas eve 1814 and declared an armistice (end of fighting) • 1815 trade reopened • 1818 British-American commission set the northern boundary of the Louisiana Territory at 49th parallel • 10 year joint occupation of Oregon Territory