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The War of 1812

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  1. The War of 1812 "This presentation was adapted from Mrs. Ligouri and Mrs. Pojers class, http://americanhistory.pppst.com/warof1812.html )

  2. Overviewof theWarof1812

  3. What are some major political, and economic events that led to The War of 1812? • US shipping was being harassed, and cargo was seized. • Britain required licenses for ships bound for Europe • France confiscated cargo from licensed ships • Impressments of American sailors • Many British sailors became naturalized US citizens and deserted British vessels and joined American crews. • British Navy kidnapped these sailors off American ships and had them rejoin the British Navy

  4. What were Political causes that started the war? • 1806  Berlin Decrees [“Continental System”] • 1806  Britain issued the “Orders in Council.” • 1807  Milan Decrees • 1808-1811  Britain impressed over 6,000 American sailors. • Napoleonic Wars? Americans are unhappy with British because of their ongoing blockade in France because of the wars

  5. Economic events that led to The War of 1812? • Economic Diplomacy Fails • Embargo Act of 1807 halted all trade with Europe • Embargo is a government ban on trade with other countries • Embargo was unpopular in port cities, especially in the North

  6. What was Madison’s role leading up to The War of 1812? • Non-Intercourse Act • Forbade trade with France and Britain; however President could reopen trade when either France or Britain lifted restrictions • Was this successful? Why or Why not • War Hawks • Southern congressmen favored war, even though it hurt the east • Why did the War Hawks want war?

  7. Presidential Election of 1808

  8. James Madison Becomes President

  9. Britain Instigation of Indians British General Brock Meets with Tecumseh

  10. Battle of Tippecanoe, 1811 • General William HenryHarrison  governor ofthe Indiana Territory. • Invited Native Indianchiefs to Ft. Wayne, INto sign away 3 mil. acres of land to the US government. • Tecumseh organized a confederacy of Indian tribes to fight for their homelands. • Tecumseh’s brother fought against Harrison and was defeated at Tippecanoe. • This made Harrison a national hero![1840 election  Tippecanoe & Tyler, too!]

  11. Presidential Election of 1812

  12. Are the Americans ready for War? • The US was unprepared militarily: • Had a 12-ship navy vs. Britain’s800 ships. • Americans disliked a draft  preferred to enlist in the disorganized state militias. • Financially unprepared: • Flood of paper $. • Revenue from import tariffs declined. • Regional disagreements.

  13. Declaration of War • June of 1812 Madison asked Congress for declaration of war • Vote was split along regional lines • War started with Invasion of Canada

  14. Key Battles • US Burns York (now Toronto) • US figured the Canadians would welcome the Americans and quickly join the US to expel Britain from North America…this did not happen • Perry Defeated the British on Lake Erie • This gave the US control of Lake Erie • Britain Blockades the Eastern Seaboard • This prevented shipping from leaving, and made the war more unpopular in the Northeast

  15. The White House • In August 1814, British Forces Sailed into Chesapeake Bay and capture Washington D.C. • They burn the White House and the Capitol • Madison and Congress Barely escape

  16. Oh Say Can You See… • Unlike D.C., Baltimore was Ready for the British • The City militia inflicted heavy casualties on the British • After bombarding Fort McHenry on September 13, 1814 The British abandon the attack • Francis Scott Key witnessed the bombardment and penned a poem which becomes the National Anthem. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LSiRUSjSJnQ

  17. Battle of Fort McHenry,1814 Oh Say Can You SeeBy the Dawn’s Early Light… -- Francis Scott Key

  18. Treaty of GhentDecember 24, 1814

  19. Treaty of Ghent • Treaty was Negotiated in Europe and was signed on Dec. 24, 1814 ending the war of 1812 • The War ended in a stalemate, where no party gained or lost any territory. • The issue of impressment was not addressed, but faded on its own.

  20. Battle of New Orleans • Fought after the treaty was signed (but not ratified) • Why was New Orleans important? • Pirates and Frontiersman fought alongside US troops • Made Andrew Jackson a National hero and household name • Ensured treaty ratification

  21. The Battle of New Orleans, 1815

  22. Andrew Jackson • Nicknamed “old Hickory” because of his toughness and aggressive personality. • After the war is considered a national Hero. • Goes on to Become the 7th United States President. • Won some major battles in the War of 1812 • The battle of Horseshoe Bend • The battle of New Orleans

  23. The Battle of New Orleans, 1815

  24. Consequences of the War? • Gave the United States a National Identity • We were able to hold our own against the British • Started us thinking about continuing westward expansion • Ended bad feelings toward the British • Creates a hero in Andrew Jackson and the Western Frontiersmen