The War of 1812 “Mr. Madison’s War”
America's Second War for Independence?
Causes of the War
1. Napoleonic Wars • Fighting between Britain and France leads to blockade in Europe • Napoleon keeps British goods out of Europe; Britain keeps French ships from leaving France or goods from entering • British seize ~ 1,000 American ships
2. British Impressment • Brits have an annoying habit of capturing U.S. sailors & drafting them into the Royal Navy
3. Chesapeake Incident • British fire on USS Chesapeake after being denied entry • Kill 3 Americans, wound 18 • TJ’s Response: • British ships cannot dock in American ports • Asks governors to call up state militias
4. The Embargo Act (1807) • TJ puts ban on EXPORTING all goods to foreign nations • Thought it would hurt European economies & make them realize how much they needed the U.S. • Not so much…..hurts us even more. • Lifted in 1809
4. The Embargo Act (1807) • Turn to your partner: What is this cartoon saying about the Embargo Act?
5. The Non-Intercourse Act (1809) • Passed in last 4 days of TJ’s presidency • Lifted Embargo Act EXCEPT with Fr. & Br. • Hurt our economy BUT helped us industrialize
1808 – James Madison Elected “Withered little apple” ~ Washington Irving
6. Battle of Tippecanoe, 1811 • General William HenryHarrison governor ofthe Indiana Territory. • Invited Native Indianchiefs to Ft. Wayne, INto sign away 3 mil. acres of land to the US government. • Tecumseh organized a confederacy of Indian tribes to fight for their homelands. • Tecumseh’s brother the Prophet fought against Harrison and was defeated at Tippecanoe. • This made Harrison a national hero!
Battle of Tippecanoe, 1811 • British supplying Indians with weapons British General Brock Meets with Tecumseh
7. “War Hawks” • Congressmen call for war against Britain John C. Calhoun [SC] Henry Clay [KY] “On to Canada!”
“Mr. Madison’s War!” http://www.history.com/videos/madisons-war-agaist-great-britain#madisons-war-agaist-great-britain
American Problems • The US was unprepared militarily: • Had a 12-ship navy vs. Britain’s800 ships. • Americans disliked a draft preferred to enlist in the disorganized state militias. • Financially unprepared: • Flood of paper $. • Revenue from import tariffs declined. • Regional disagreements.
Overview of theWar of 1812 • 1811 – Tippecanoe • 1812 - 1813 – The Great Lakes/Canada/Blockade of east coast • Battle of the Thames – • Death of Tecumseh • 1814 – Northeast • 1814 – Baltimore & Washington • Battle of Ft. McHenry – Push British from Chesapeake • 1815 – New Orleans
Battle of Fort McHenry,1814 Oh Say Can You SeeBy the Dawn’s Early Light… -- Francis Scott Key
Gave proof through the night,That our flag was still there.. http://www.history.com/videos/war-of-1812-siege-at-fort-mchenry#war-of-1812-siege-at-fort-mchenry
Hartford ConventionDecember, 1814 – January, 1815 • NEW ENGLAND CONSIDERS SECESSION! • Unhappy with trade acts passed by Congress • Opposed War of 1812 • Signing of the Treaty of Ghent discredits the members of the convention and signals the end of the Federalist Party
Treaty of GhentDecember 24, 1814 Returns the “status quo antebellum” Trade opens again shortly afterwards
The Battle of New Orleans, 1815 • News moves verrrryy slow battle is fought after Treaty of Ghent is signed • Andrew Jackson makes a name for himself