CH. 6-4 WAR OF 1812 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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CH. 6-4 WAR OF 1812
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CH. 6-4 WAR OF 1812

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  2. VIOLATING NEUTRALITY • Why did the USA and Britain get into a war so soon after the Revolutionary War? • Unresolved tensions about the Northwest Frontier and problems on the seas • 1803—USA caught in the middle of British trade disagreements • Napoleonic Wars between France and Britain involve American merchant ships • France and England ignore American neutrality

  3. Americans saw Britain as a more serious threat • IMPRESSMENT—men kidnapped and forced to work on ships • Chesapeake Incident • British ship Leopard stopped the US ship Chesapeake to search for deserters • Chesapeake refused to be searched so they were fired upon • Britain seized 4 American sailors

  4. Americans were furious • President Jefferson and Congress passed a drastic law • The Embargo Act—Prohibited exports to foreign countries • Disastrous to the economy • Goods piled up in warehouses, ships sat in the harbor, people lost their jobs, businesses failed • 1808 Presidential election—Madison, Jefferson’s ally, wins easily • A new law re-opens all trade except with Britain and France • Conflicts over commerce were pushing the nation toward war

  5. TECUMSEH RESISTS SETTLERS • On-going conflict between settlers and Native Americans • Britain tried to re-build their relationship with Native Americans • NEW POLICIES • William Henry Harrison named governor of the Indiana Territory • President Jefferson’s Native American Policy • Native Americans could either choose to become farmers or join white society and move west of the Mississippi River

  6. As Harrison implemented the policy, Native Americans made treaties in which they lost millions of acres of tribal lands in MI, IN, IL • NEW INDIAN LEADERS • Two Shawnee brothers emerge as leaders • Tenskwatawa (the prophet)—spoke against white culture • Tecumseh (shooting star)—1809-began to unite his brother’s followers

  7. 1811—While Tecumseh was away, Harrison’s forces attacked. Both sides had heavy losses • Prophetstown, IN burns • Conflict called The Battle of Tippecanoe. Harrison was a national hero

  8. THE WAR OF 1812 BEGINS • Some American politicians had been calling for war – WARHAWKS • Less concerned about world affairs • They hated Britain and even hoped for a conquest of Canada • WAR IS DECLARED • Henry Clay (a leading warhawk) became Speaker of the House 1811 • Congress pressured President Madison to send a war declaration • Congress declared war on Great Britain in June 1812

  9. The War of 1812 was fought on land and sea, from Canada to Louisiana • Much of the war took place along the US-Canadian border • British also staged a massive blockade of the American coast and New Orleans • GAINS AND LOSSES • American navy was several victories • August 1812—USS Constitution sank the British ship Guerriere • Gunfire bounced off the oak hull of the Constitution earning it the nickname Old Ironsides

  10. Americans make several unsuccessful attempts to invade Canada • Tecumseh joins the British to capture Detroit and invade Ohio • October 1813—Battle of the Thames (Ontario, CN), Tecumseh is killed • Native Americans suffer another tragic loss in Battle of Horseshoe Bend • TN militia leader Andrew Jackson massacred Creek Indian women, children, and warriors • He seized the fort at Pensacola, FL

  11. A successful British tactic was to make quick strikes against coastal cities • August 1814—British navy sails into Chesapeake Bay. Soldiers march into Washington • Several major buildings are burned • British bombard Fort McHenry (Baltimore, MD) • Francis Scott Key observes the battle • Key writes “The Star Spangled Banner” • British forces land near New Orleans in December 1814

  12. Andrew Jackson beats the British to New Orleans • January 1815—Battle of New Orleans made Jackson a hero • TREATY OF GHENT • 1814-diplomats meet in Ghent, Belgium to create a peace treaty (signed in December) • Both sides eager for peace • No territory changed hands • America had proved itself as a nation. • THE END