The War of 1812 This unit will examine the following questions: Why did the war of 1812 occur? Who were some of the key people of the period? What were the outcomes of the major battles of the war? How did the war affect the development of upper Canada? By: Mr. Koprowski
Causes of the War of 1812 • There were several long-term causes that existed for a while and helped lead to the War of 1812. • The long term causes mainly came from Europe. In 1799, Britain and France went to war. The French ruler, Napoleon Bonaparte, was trying to challenge Britain’s position as the leading military super power in the world. • The struggles between the two nations were called the Napoleonic Wars. • They lasted until 1815.
French Bitterness • France had suffered a huge setback when they lost New France to the British. • They had their revenge by helping the American colonies gain independence from Britain in 1783.
Trade Wars • The French and the British were always looking for ways to weaken each other. They achieved this by disrupting trade. • France tried to prevent Britain from trading with other countries by blockading ports and forcing ship inspections. Britain returned the favor. This dragged other countries into the struggle. • These trade wars had a negative impact on the newly formed United States, which relied on its merchant ships. Long-term causes soon blended with immediate ones.
Immediate Causes of the War of 1812 • In addition to the long term causes that set the tone for a climate of war, there were also immediate causes that eventually led to the onset of the war. • These immediate causes were: • British support of Indian raiders • British Interference with American merchant ships • American expansion into the Northwest • Fur trade officials in the First Nation territories • American Jingoism
British Support of Native Raiders • The French allied themselves with the American Colonies during the American revolution. • The British helped Indian raiders by supplying them with weapons. • The British hoped that the Indian raiders would cause chaos and instability for the American Colonies and French.
British Interference with American Merchant Ships • Britain knew that many Americans supported the French during the Napoleonic Wars. • British warships blockaded American merchant ships to slow down/stop supply lines. They would inspect the merchant ships. • In some cases, they found British seamen on board. The British captured them and forced them to work on British warships. This practice is called impressment, and was legal if the sailors were British deserters.
American Expansion into the Northwest • The Treaty of Paris, in 1783, had given the Ohio Valley to the United States, but it still required Americans to respect treaties already signed with First Nations. • American settlers needed more land, so they expanded into First Nations land. The First Nations were upset that the treaties were being ignored. • The First Nations appealed to the British for help. The British feared that if nothing was done, the Americans would become bolder and march into Upper Canada.
Fur Trade Officials in the First Nation Territories • The Americans made many claims: • The fur traders were encouraging First Nation claims • The First Nation people were making false reports about American settlers. • The British were supplying First Nations with weapons to attack American settlers. • The Americans said that if this didn’t stop, their government would be forced into action to prevent war between First Nations and settlers.
American Jingoism (Jingo-ism) • Jingoism means aggressive talk and opinions that justify military action. This was common among American politicians. • The jingoists spread propaganda urging the American troops to invade Upper and Lower Canada to protect the United States. • They said American troops wouldn’t have trouble because British North Americans (now Canadians) were unhappy under the monarchy and wanted to be free. Thomas Jefferson
In Closing • America was at War with the British. • The British were preventing American trade with the rest of Europe. • The British were impressing defected British and American sailors into their own navy. • The British were stirring up First Nations people to attack American settlements. • America was not strong enough to attack Britain directly, but it could strike one of its major colonies (Canada). • So began the War of 1812
Between Two Sides • Work with a partner. • Answer the following questions in your book. Both of you should have the answers in your books. • How were the First Nations people involved in the struggle between the British and the Americans? • Which side do you think they wanted to see as the winner? Why? • Be prepared to share.
Quiz #1 • Your quiz will be composed of 20 multiple choice questions. • Your quiz will only cover slides 1-11 You may use this video to help you study for your quiz. You should still review your notes because this video does not cover everything that will be on your quiz. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z3spRxo4CKY