The War of 1812 Grade 7 History
Intro • The war had both European and North America roots • Happened along the border between the US and British North America • Lasted over 2 years • Canadian, Americans and First Nations suffered loss of property and life • Sometimes both sides have claimed victory in the same battles and the war overall • How can this be?
Causes • Impressment – many British naval soldiers would leave the navy to join the American merchant navy (for pay and better conditions) – British navy would stop American ships and search for deserters—sometimes impressed/forced American sailors into service in the British navy • Blockade – British blockade France, but American economy lost the major market for their good—Europe • First Nations Alliances – US accusing the British of encouraging First Nations to be hostile and to settle the West preventing the US from claiming land there • War Hawks – group of American politicians from the South and West that believed America should expand its borders
Activity • Which of these four causes do you think is the most significant? Why? • Create a PRO/CON chart to help decide whether or not the US was justified in declaring war on the British North America. • Analyze pages 166-167
Invasion • On July 12, 1812, Canada was invaded by the Northwester Army of the US led by William Hull • Where did he invade? Sandwich Loyalty - Sir Isaac Brock (major general) was not sure how much support there was in British North America. Many troops were in Britain to fight France. Many believed the Loyalists came to Canada more for land then allegiance. Few thought Canada could be defended. Brock refused to listen.
Activity If another country invaded yours: - What would your response be? - How would you expect your government and military to respond? What did Brock remind the people of Upper Canada about in order to dissuade them from siding with the Americans? (p. 169)
Battle of Queenston Heights • October 13, 1812 • Brock led a small force to defend Queenston Heights • He had to withdraw his troops and wait for reinforcements • British troops and militia arrived as well as First Nations led by John Brant • The invading American were forced to withdraw • 958 Americans were taken prisoner • It was an important defensive victory for the British Allies
The Battle of Put-in-Bay • September 1813 • British facing a winter supply problem • US has advantage on the Great Lakes since British navy blockading American coast • 6 British ships vs. 9 US ships • Lasted from morning to afternoon • Americans captured the British ships and control of Lake Erie
The Battle of Chateauguay • October 25, 1813 • US plans to invade Montreal and cut supply line between Kingston—hinder the war effort in Upper Canada • US had poor leadership and communication • Shot and killed some of their own • Overestimated size of the British force—retreated even though outnumbered the British 8:1 • This was an important strategic win • First battle where French and British fought along side each other.
The Battle of Lundy’s Lane • 1814 – took 5 hours • Fought at night beside Niagara Falls • Both sides suffered approx 800 casualties • Confusion – both sides fought their own • US withdrew to Fort Erie to build a defence • British prepared for an attack that never came • Both sides claimed victory because neither side clearly won or lost.
Activity • How would you define a victory in war? • Based on the battles you have learned about, can you identify who won the War of 1812? • Explain why or why not.
War Ends • War ended soon after the Battle of Lundy’s Lane • Britain’s war with Napoleon over • Impressment of US soldiers ended before the war began • Blockade of Europe was over • For the US, most of the reasons for war were gone
Treaty of Ghent • December 24, 1814 • US and BNA boundaries went to the way they were before the war • 49th parallel of latitude would be a guideline for their international boundary • Britain would drop goal of First Nations territory • Agreed to never use First Nations as allies in war again
Activity • Consider how Britain, Canada, First Nations and the US were affected by the War of 1812. • Who gained the most from war? • Who gained the least? • P. 182-186 • TEST ON MONDAY!