This Means War!!! • Many republicans supported the war with England, and others (like many new Englanders) did not. The American declaration of war took the British by surprise. England was locked in a war with France so they had very little time or resources to fight America. • This did not mean that everything was great for America, though. Keep in mind that Jefferson had greatly weakened the Army and, more importantly, the Navy. In the beginning of the War of 1812, the US had 16 total ships in the Navy. • Now that the Indians were seen as being in cahoots with England, they were also thrust into a sort of war with the US. This would only drive the already strained American and Indian relationship further apart.
The White House Burns • In 1814, England won its war with France. Now they could focus the full power of their navy (which happened to be the best in the world) straight at the US. • British troops landed just outside of Washington DC, marched to the capital, and burned it to the ground, White House and all. There was very little that the sparse American army could do. • Dolly Madison, the president’s wife, gathered important things from the White House so they wouldn’t be destroyed, including presidential papers and a portrait of Washington.
The Star Spangled Banner • That same British battalion marched north toward Baltimore. The key to Baltimore’s defense was Fort McHenry. The Americans and British fought through the night and into the morning. The British could not break through, and they were forced to retreat. A young lawyer named Francis Scott Key witnessed the battle and wrote a poem about it. Not long after, that poem was put to music, and today it is The Star Spangled Banner, our national anthem.
Native American Losses • Battle of the Thames - William Henry Harrison lead the attack that resulted in the death of Tecumseh. With Tecumseh dead, his Confederation fell apart. • Battle of Horseshoe Bend – Andrew Jackson lead a groups of Frontiersman and some Cherokees against the Creek Indians. The Creeks were slaughtered.
Andrew Jackson • An up and coming officer named Andrew Jackson made a name for himself by forming an army of frontiersmen and defending places like New Orleans from British capture. • African Americans also volunteered by the thousands to defend the United States.
Battle of New Orleans • Jackson uses frontiersman, Native Americans, and privateers (legal pirates), and African Americans. • Jacksons men waited for the British attack in trenches. • The British attacked numerous times, but were unsuccessful due to the Americans being hidden in the trenches. • 2000 plus British died in the attack, while only 7 Americans were killed!!!
Edward Pakenham (brother of Duke of Wellington) led the attack and was killed. His head was chopped off and placed in a hog’s head full of rum and sent to the King of England.
The Hartford Convention New England states would secede unless… • President would be limited to 1 term in office • No 2 presidents in a row can be from the same state • Must have 2/3 vote to declare war • Must have 2/3 vote to admit new states • Embargos cant last more than 60 days • Naturalized citizens can’t serve in the senate • End the 3/5 Compromise. • The war ended and the Hartford Conventions plans were abandoned, but it made people mad that New Englanders and Federalist were willing to turn their back on America.
The War Ends • By 1814, peace talks had begun. At the end of the war, nothing was really settled. The United States did not address the issue of impressment, and England did not address the US’s misunderstanding of what neutrality was. The Treaty of Ghent simply returned everything to the way it had been before the war. • Looking back, some Americans felt that the War of 1812 had been a mistake. Others argued that Europe would now treat the young republic with more respect.