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The War of 1812

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  1. The War of 1812

  2. Background • Jefferson re-elected in 1804 • American shipping threatened during 2nd term • 1806 – Napoleon excludes BR goods from EUR • G.B. blockades EUR • What does this mean for the U.S.?

  3. Background • By 1807: • BR seized 1,000+ ships & cargoes • FR seized 500+ • Americans angry over BR policy of impressment

  4. U.S. Response • (Post Chesapeake incident) (more later) • Embargo of 1807 • Banned exports to other countries • Belief: Hurt on Britain & EUR • Believed Result: EUR & BR would honor American neutrality • Reality: Embargo hurt Americans more • Repeal: 1809. Non-Intercourse Act – formally reopened trade w/ BR & FR

  5. Election of 1808 • Madison wins • Can’t dominate like T. Jeff • Ends up re-authorizing embargo (just Britain) • AMERICAN NEUTRALITY ENDING

  6. War? • Madison to Congress in 1808: • Madison’s Complaints about British: • Impressment! • Neutrality – Violated! We’re already at war with Britain, yo.

  7. A New Challenger Approaches: WAR HAWKS • Young congressmen from S. & W. • Motto: “On to CANADA!” • Sen. John C. Calhoun [SC] • Speaker of the House: Henry Clay [KY] • Complaints: • British aid to the Native Americans • Wanted: • AMERICAN EXPANSION • Protecting American Honor!

  8. War? • S. & W. Representatives vote War • DE, NY, NJ, PA (New England states) oppose • War Hawks win

  9. Election of 1812

  10. #AMERICANPROBLEMS • Militarily Unprepared • 16-ship navy vs. Britain’s 800 ships • No draft (militias) • Financially Unprepared • Flood of paper $ • No revenue from import tariffs • Regional Disagreements • NY Regiment refused to cross into Canada

  11. The War in Canada • British soon capture Detroit • US fails to take Montreal • Oliver Hazard Perry – Lake Erie • America retakes Detroit • Native Americans allies for both • Tecumseh fights w/ Britain • Killed in Battle of the Thames, 1813

  12. The War at Sea • First real test of navy • 16 Ships • 3 44-gun frigates (the President, the United States, the Constitution) • Nov 1812 – BR gov orders blockade of Chesapeake & Delaware bays • US wins some naval victories • BR orders more blockades • End of 1813 – most US ships stuck in port

  13. Canada Strikes Back • 1814 – British raiding along Atlantic • Battle of York (capital of upper Canada) • US burnt governor’s mansion & legislative bldgs. • British enter D.C. • Burn the Capitol, White House

  14. Canada Strikes Back • Aug 24th – POTUS Madison & staff flee • Dolly Madison

  15. War of 1812 Overview

  16. 3 U.S. Invasions of 1812

  17. Campaigns of 1813

  18. Battle of Fort McHenry, 1814 Francis Scott Key pens the words to the Star Spangled Banner

  19. The Hartford Convention • December 1814 – January 1815 • NE States openly talked about secession • WHY? • Pro-British Federalists • Sympathy w/ BR • Napoleon = “anti-Christ of the age” • Canada = +agrarian states in “NW” • Conclusion: Send a group to DCto demand more states’ rights!

  20. The Treaty of Ghent – Dec. 24th 1814 • (Too late Hartford Conventionists!) • Treaty: • ARMISTICE • 1815 – Commercial Treaty = Trade • 1817 – Warships limited in Great Lakes • 1818 – US N. Border set at 49th parallel • 10-yr joint occ. of OR Territory • US Treasury somewhat bankrupt

  21. The Battle of New Orleans - 1815 • BR Gen. Packenham in New Orleans (Dec 1814) • Follows Jackson to MS R. • Jackson fortifies, waits for BR • 2100 BR casualties • Americans: 13 dead, 58 MIA • Jackson already won numerous battlesvs. Natives (power destroyed in S.) • “Greatest” Battle of the War

  22. The Battle of New Orleans - 1815

  23. Jackson’s Florida Campaigns

  24. Outcomes • Federalists accused of treason (lose power) • Little America stopped Great Britain! Yay!

  25. “The Battle of New Orleans”

  26. “The War of 1812” (Canadian Version)