The War of 1812 Objective: ACOS 10.6 Describe relations of the U.S. with Britain and France from 1781 to 1832 , including the XYZ Affair, the War of 1812 and the Monroe Doctrine.
Causes of the War • Impressment • Seizure of cargo • Trade Restrictions • Failed Negotiations with the British • British role in Native American attacks on settlers.
The War Hawks • Who were they? • Henry Clay (Kentucky) • John C. Calhoun (South Carolina) • Felix Grundy (Tennessee) • Why did the South want to go to war? • Trade restrictions hurt Southern and Western farmers who sold tobacco, rice, wheat and cotton overseas. • NE merchants made money by passing costs of lost cargo onto S and W farmers.
Native American Issues • Settlers on the frontier facing attack from Native Americans • Tecumseh – Shawnee Chief who believed that the Native Americans needed to unite to protect their land • Tenskwatawa – his brother and spiritual leader • Lived on the Tippecanoe River in Indiana • William Henry Harrison – governor of Indiana • Saw the militant rise of Tecumseh and wanted to stamp it out.
Native American Issues • Battle of Tippecanoe • November 1811 – Tenskwatawa struck first against the Americans near the Tippecanoe River • Left about ¼ of the American force wounded or dead • Natives lost much more • Shattered their confidence in leadership • They fled to Canada (including Tecumseh) • Contributed to the American belief that the British were arming the Native Americans
Native American Issues • Horseshoe Bend – Tallapoosa River, Alabama • Battle between Red Stick Creeks and Tennessee Volunteers led by Major General Andrew Jackson • Decisive win for the Americans • One soldier called the Tallapoosa a “river of blood” • Resulted in Creek loss of most of their land. • Jackson gained fame for his part in the battle.
The War Begins • Problems arise • Not a popular war (“Mr. Madison’s War) • Very small military (about 7000 troops, only 16 ships) • Paying for the war • National bank has been shut down • Government can’t borrow money because most private banks are in the Northeast (opposes the war)
The Invasion of Canada • Three attacks against the British in Canada • All three failed: • British cut off Americans in Detroit from Lake Erie • British drove Americans away from Niagara Falls • Planned attack on Montreal called off because General Dearborn’s troops refused to cross the border • Lake Erie (September 10, 1813) • Commodore Oliver Perry’s fleet attacked the British • After a four-hour battle the British surrendered • Gave Americans control of the lake • Retried the attack on Canada, but it, too, failed
The End of the War • Britain’s Three Part Strategy • Raid American coastal cities • March into New York from Montreal • Seize New Orleans and control the Mississippi River
The End of the War • Washington D.C. (August 1814) • Entered unopposed • Burned the Capitol and White House (Dolly Madison) • Baltimore (September 13, 1814) • City militia held off the British as they bombarded Ft. McHenry • British abandoned the city
The End of the War • Lake Champlain (September 11, 1814) • British force of 15,000 defeated by the American naval force • Abandoned attempt to control the lake and retreated to Montreal • Hartford Convention (December 1814) • Federalists from New England meet to discuss opposition to the war • Considered seceding from the U.S. • Decided instead to ask for several amendments to the Constitution to increase the power of the region.
The Battle of New Orleans • January 1815 British fleet lands near New Orleans • Using cotton bales for protection, American soldiers easily pick off advancing British troops • Easy victory for the Americans under the leadership of General Andrew Jackson • Made Jackson a national hero • Helped destroy the Federalist party • Increased nationalism
The War Ends • The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) • Ended the war • Restored prewar boundaries • Did not address impressment or neutral rights • No territory changed hands (gained or lost) • Increased the nation’s prestige • Generated a spirit of patriotism and national unity • Canadian border later set at the 49o from Minnesota to the Rocky Mtns.
Assignment • TIMELINE • Fill in 10 important events relating to the War of 1812 • You must use the following five events: • The end of the war • Battle of New Orleans • The beginning of the war • Attack on Washington D.C. • Lake Champlain • Five of your own choosing • Include date and DETAILS of each event