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MEMORY The ability to store and retrieve information over time.
Key Terms • Cognition* • The process of acquiring and using knowledge: thinking. • Information Processing Theory * • The mind is similar to a computer with input, processing, and output. • Reconstructive Memory * • Memory is stored in pieces, and later put back together using past & present information, emotions, beliefs, bias. Eyewitness Testimony
Stages of Memory * • Sensory memory * • Brief storage of sensory information • Iconic (visual) and Echoic (auditory) • Short term memory (STM) * • Small amounts of memory (5-9 bits) • Less than 1 minute (20-30 sec) • Working Memory * • Memory processes used in STM • Long Term Memory * • Storage of information, schemas* • Schemas = Pattern of knowledge to help organize information. Memory (video)
Stage Model of MemorySource: Adapted from Atkinson, R. C., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K. Spence (Ed.) The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 2). Oxford, England: Academic Press. Attention Encoding
Sensory Memory Test • Watch this video and follow instructions: • Sensory to Short Term Memory: Attention • For those who did not pay attention, what factors contributed to this failure? • Watch: Door Video. What is happening? • What real-world situations might occur when a failure of attention causes information be lost before it reaches short term memory? • What might the consequences be?
Long Term Memory * • A. Explicit (Declarative) Memory * • Knowledge or experiences that can be consciously remembered. • 1. Episodic Memory * • First hand experience (e.g. first date) • 2. Semantic Memory * • Facts and concepts (e.g. presidents) • B. Implicit (Nondeclarative) Memory * • Experience (procedural) e.g. riding a bike, using a keyboard, swimming
Measuring Long Term Memory * • Recall * • Free recall – e.g. essay test (Discuss Thorndike’s theory) • Cued Recall – e.g. fill in the blank questions (Thorndike proposed the law of _____). • Recognition * • Remembering previously seen information • E.g. Multiple choice tests • (Thorndike proposed the law of a. effect b. behavior c. consequences d. averages)
Techniques to Improve Memory • Maintenance Rehearsal * • Repetition; not very effective • Chunking * Chunking video • Remembering sets or groups. Increases capacity. • Elaborative encoding * • Relate to another memory. • Elaborative rehearsal * • Study by finding more examples and using other methods, e.g. Organization
Mnemonic Devices * • Memory aids, e.g. associations, rhymes, songs, images, Method of Loci (place; story-telling) • Self-referencing * • Apply the material to yourself. • Overlearning * • Keep studying • Spacing * • Distributed better than massed practice; don’t cram the night before test • Forgetting Curve Video
Processing Memory • Encoding * • Process of putting information into memory • Storage * • Physical memory connections in the brain • Retrieval * • Finding & taking information out of memory
Image attributed to Stangor, 2011. Introduction to PsychologyWhich is the real penny? Which memory process failed: encoding, storage or retrieval?
Image adapted from Stangor, 2011. Introduction to Psychology (declarative) (nondeclarative)
Causes of Forgetting • Decay Theory * • Applies to STM, not LTM • Encoding failure * • Information not stored properly; can’t find it • Retrieval Failure * • Inability to bring information into working memory • Tip of the tongue phenomenon • Amnesia * • Biological cause , e.g. disease, head injury
Forgetting, cont. • Motivated Forgetting * • Inability to encode or retrieve memories due to anxiety. • Biological theory v. Freud’s theory • Interference * • Retroactive Interference – new learning impairs older memory • Proactive Interference – Previous learning interferes with new memory.
Biology of Memory • Biology of Memory Video