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Memory

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  1. Memory Rozalia Ivady BME – Cognitive Science Department ImpLab Scientific Society Psychology Class, McDaniels College, 29th October 2007

  2. Memory – an outline • Multiple stores • Retention curves – serial position data • Memory dysfunctions • Sensory memory • Short term memory • Long term memory • Three processes • Forgetting • Explicit and implicit memory • Constructive memory • Psychology and the law

  3. But before anything else • Provo is a picturesque region of France. • Corman was a pretender to the throne of Provo. • He was tired of waiting. • He thought arsenic might work. Try to remember these!

  4. Look at these pictures Now look carefully at these pictures. You will need to recall them later.

  5. Memory – an outline • Multiple stores • Retention curves – serial position data • Memory dysfunctions • Iconic memory • Short term memory • Long term memory • Three processes • Explicit and implicit memory • Constructive memory • Psychology and the law

  6. Cat Apple Banana Hammer Toothpick Parrot Table Blackberry Fly Chair Screw Pigeon Orange Knife Bed Dog Fork Rat Try to recall as many items as you can!

  7. Multiple stores or MLP?

  8. Multiple stores or MLP? Primacy effect Recency effect

  9. Maintenance Rehearsal Sensory Memory Working or Short-term Memory Encoding Long-term memory Attention Sensory Input Retrieval The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

  10. Memory dysfunctions - amnesia

  11. Famous Anterograde Amnesiac: HM • Severe epilepsy, treated with surgery to bilaterally remove medial temporal lobes, including hippocampus • Operation 9/1953, 27 years old

  12. Anterograde Amnesia • Inability to acquire new information • “memento” • Does not affect short-term memory and general knowledge from the past • But, it is difficult to learn new facts • Affects memory regardless of modality (visual, auditory, tactile, etc). Spares skilled performance • Hyper-specific memory for those skills that are learned after onset – learning is expressed only in context in which it was encoded

  13. Amnesia • Types of amnesia • Anterograde • Retrograde

  14. Memory – an outline • Multiple stores • Retention curves – serial position data • Memory dysfunctions • Sensory memory • Short term memory • Long term memory • Three processes • Explicit and implicit memory • Constructive memory • Psychology and the law

  15. There is more than we can tell… • Eidetic pictures of children How many stripes did you see on the cat?

  16. Sensory Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory Store • Function - holds information long enough to be processed for basic physical characteristics • Capacity - large • can hold many items at once • Duration - very brief retention of images • .3 sec for visual info • 2 sec for auditory info

  17. Sensory Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory Store • Divided into two subtypes: • iconic memory - visual information • echoic memory - auditory information • Visual or iconic memory was discovered by Sperling in 1960

  18. Sperling’s Experiment • Presented matrix of letters for 1/20 seconds • Report as many letters as possible • Subjects recall only half of the letters • Was this because subjects didn’t have enough time to view entire matrix? No • How did Sperling know this?

  19. High Medium Low Sperling’s Experiment • Sperling showed people can see and recall ALL the letters momentarily • Sounded low, medium or high tone immediately after matrix disappeared • tone signaled 1 row to report • recall was almost perfect • Memory for image fades after 1/3 seconds or so, making report of entire display hard to do

  20. Sperling’s Iconic Memory Experiment

  21. Sperling’s Iconic Memory Experiment

  22. Sperling’s Iconic Memory Experiment

  23. Sperling’s Iconic Memory Experiment

  24. Sperling’s Iconic Memory Experiment G V U L S J N A Z A M K X F Q O U N

  25. What Letters Do You See? DiLollo …..

  26. What Letters Do You See? …..

  27. …..

  28. What Letters Do You See? …..

  29. Sensory Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory Store • Sensory memory forms automatically, without attention or interpretation • Attention is needed to transfer information to working memory

  30. Memory – an outline • Multiple stores • Retention curves – serial position data • Memory dysfunctions • Sensory memory • Short term memory • Long term memory • Three processes • Explicit and implicit memory • Constructive memory • Psychology and the law

  31. Sensory Memory Working or Short-term Memory Attention Sensory Input Working Memory Store

  32. Maintenance Rehearsal Sensory Memory Working or Short-term Memory Encoding Long-term memory Attention Sensory Input Retrieval The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

  33. Sensory Memory Working or Short-term Memory Attention Sensory Input Working Memory Store • Function - conscious processing of information • where information is actively worked on • Capacity - limited (holds 7 +/- 2 items) • Duration - brief storage (about 30 seconds) • Code - often based on sound or speech even with visual inputs

  34. Working Memory Store • What happens if you need to keep information in working memory longer than 30 seconds? • To demonstrate, memorize the following phone number (presented one digit at a time)... 8 5 7 9 1 6 3

  35. Working Memory Store • What is the number? 857-9163 The number lasted in your working memory longer than 30 seconds So, how were you able to remember the number?

  36. Maintenance Rehearsal • Mental or verbal repetition of information Allows information to remain in working memory longer than the usual 30 seconds Maintenance rehearsal Sensory Memory Working or Short-term Memory Attention Sensory Input

  37. Maintenance Rehearsal • What happens if you can’t use maintenance rehearsal? • Memory decays quickly • To demonstrate, again memorize a phone number (presented one digit at a time) • BUT, have to count backwards from 1,000 by sevens (i.e., 1014, 1007, 1000 … etc.) 6 2 8 5 0 9 4

  38. Working Memory Store • What is the number? 628-5094 Without rehearsal, memory fades

  39. Peterson’s STM Task • Test of memory for 3-letter nonsense syllables • Participants count backwards for a few seconds, then recall • Without rehearsal, memory fades

  40. Central Executive Phonological Loop Visuospatial Sketch Pad Working Memory Model • Baddeley (1992) • 3 interacting components

  41. Central Executive Phonological Loop Visuospatial Sketch pad Working Memory Model • Visuospatial sketch pad - holds visual and spatial info • Phonological loop - holds verbal information • Central executive - coordinates all activities of working memory; brings new information into working memory from sensory and long-term memory

  42. Maintenance Rehearsal Sensory Memory Working or Short-term Memory Encoding Long-term memory Attention Sensory Input Retrieval Long-Term Memory Store • Once information passes from sensory to working memory, it can be encoded into long-term memory

  43. Maintenance Rehearsal Sensory Memory Working or Short-term Memory Encoding Long-term memory Attention Sensory Input Retrieval Long-Term Memory Store • Function - organizes and stores information • more passive form of storage than working memory • Unlimited capacity • Duration - thought by some to be permanent

  44. Maintenance Rehearsal Sensory Memory Working or Short-term Memory Encoding Long-term memory Attention Sensory Input Retrieval Review of Long-Term Memory • Organizes and stores information • Capacity unlimited • Thought by some to be permanent • Encoding transfers info from STM to LTM

  45. Summary • Modal model of memory • three memory stores (sensory, working and long-term memory)

  46. Three processes and sins of memory • Encoding - process that controls movement from working to long-term memory store • Storage • Retrieval - process that controls flow of information from long-term to working memory store

  47. Forgetting and the fight against it • Elaboration • Chunking • Thories of forgetting • Problems in encoding • Problems of retention • Problems of retrieval – interference ,inhibition

  48. Elaboration • Focus on meaning of information to encode it into LTM • don’t simply repeat items over and over • tie item to other info in memory • also called elaborative rehearsal

  49. Ways to Use Elaboration • Actively question new information • Think about its implications • Relate information to things you already know • Generate own examples of concepts • Don’t highlight passage as you read • focus on the ideas in the text

  50. Deep Type of Processing Shallow -Acoustic Shallow - Visual 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percent of words recalled Which Level is More Effective? • Elaboration leads to better recall than shallow processing