King Edward died without leaving a clear successor. He promised two-three people the kingdom. The final battle occurs at Hastings, England in 1066 betweenWilliam of Normandy andHarold of Wessex.
William of Normandy (aka the Conqueror) becomes the new king of England in 1066 • Accomplishments: • Built castles in England, including • the Tower of London • Wrote Domesday Book,which was a book of property • Instituted Feudalism • Incorporated French • language • Bayeaux Tapestry
Stone castles and monasteries popped up all over the English countryside. The Normans evenimported stone from France.
William's half brother, Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, commissioned a tapestry to commemorate his brother's victory—now called the Bayeux Tapestry— hand sewn cloth and embroidery 76.6 yards long depicting William's victory at Hastings.
William changed England's laws and inflicted harsh punishments for offenders. Murder became a punishable crime in England and slavery was abolished.
The Domesday Book Oldest surviving public record. Used to settle land disputes and assess taxes. William wanted to know who owned what, how much it was worth, and how much was owed to him as King in tax, rents, and military service.
Language influences:The combination of French (Norman) and Old English became Middle English -- the first time the English language was really beginning to have the vocabulary it has today. Informationfrom http://en.wikip dia.org/wiki/Li t_of_English words_with_d al_French_an _AngloSaxon _variations
Old Saxon Origin • kingly • ask • lord • bring/bear • smell • uphold • buy • eld • belief • weep • lawyer • shirt • fall • hue • darling • forgive • folk • drink (n) • Old French Origin • royal • enquire (inquire) • liege • carry • odor • support • purchase • age • faith • cry • attorney • blouse • autumn • colour • favourite • pardon • people • beverage Informationfrom http://en.wikip dia.org/wiki/Li t_of_English words_with_d al_French_an _AngloSaxon _variations
Geoffrey Chaucer • Considered the “Father • of English literature. • Keen observer of • human nature • Author of our major • piece of literature, • The Canterbury Tales. • Wrote C.T. as a satire • to criticize the corruption • of the Church.
Writing Style • Unusual to choose Middle English for literature during this time—literary works usually written in Latin or French • Because Middle English considered ordinary, it might seem Chaucer's intended audience was the general population, not nobility
Chaucer wanted to depict people from different backgrounds traveling together. The Canterbury Tales • “The Prologue” describes • 29 people • their occupation • their clothing, • their temperament • their flaws (sins) according to Chaucer, who is the 30th traveler
Canterbury Cathedral • These people, or pilgrims, were going to the shrine of St. Thomas a Becket, the martyred priest of Canterbury Cathedral. • They either were going to pay their respect or ask for a blessing by touching the tomb of the dead priest (archbishop).
Any guesses on what kind of contest? Summary of “The Prologue • The pilgrims meet up at the Tabard Inn and are traveling together for protection. • The host of the inn decides • to go also and proposes • an activity to pass the time • away while they are traveling
A storytelling contest. Each pilgrim would tell 2 stories on the way and 2 stories on the way back. • The innkeeper would judge the stories and the winner would get a prize paid for by the others—a nice, hot supper when they got back to the Tabard Inn
But Chaucer died only having completed “The Prologue” Twenty stories Two unfinished stories How many stories would Chaucer have if he had completed them all? • 116
First eighteen lines of “The Prologue” in Middle English Whan that Aprill, with his shoures soote The droghte of March hath perced to the roote And bathed every veyne in swich licour, Of which vertu engendred is the flour; Whan Zephirus eek with his sweete breeth Inspired hath in every holt and heeth The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne Hath in the Ram his halfe cours yronne, And smale foweles maken melodye, That slepen al the nyght with open eye( So priketh hem Nature in hir corages); Thanne longen folk to goon on pilgrimages And palmeres for to seken straunge strondes To ferne halwes, kowthe in sondry londes; And specially from every shires ende Of Engelond, to Caunterbury they wende, The hooly blisful martir for to seke That hem hath holpen, whan that they were seeke.
Translation When in April the sweet showers fall That pierce March's drought to the root and all And bathed every vein in liquor that has power To generate therein and sire the flower; When Zephyr also has with his sweet breath, Filled again, in every holt and heath, The tender shoots and leaves, and the young sun His half course in the sign of the Ram has run, And many little birds make melody That sleep through all the night with open eye (So Nature pricks them on to ramp and rage) Then folk do long to go on pilgrimage, And palmers to go seeking out strange strands, To distant shrines well known in distant lands. And specially from every shire's end Of England they to Canterbury went, The holy blessed martyr there to seek Who helped them when they lay so ill and weak
Satire: a literary element in literature ridiculing or poking fun of an institution (religion, gov't, education, etc.) in the hopes of changing it using wit, sarcasm, or irony.
Irony:a literary element that depicts a difference/ contradiction in what is said/meant; what is said/done; what is expected/happens