A. Physical Protection • Offered safe haven to neighbors • Some churchmen were renowned fighters • Monasteries preserved important arts of manufacturing (goods and texts) • Popes fill political vacuum in the west and were the head of the church
B. Preservers of Greco-Roman Culture • Significance of copying manuscripts • The only literature of the time was copied by monks. Almost all literature was religious or approved by the church. • Since your population could not read, they depended on the church to interpret for them. • Only the noble class could read and write.
C. Spiritual Protection • Superstitious, illiterate age • The Church was the door to salvation • Seven Deadly sins: pride, envy, anger, greed, lust, gluttony, and sloth • People lived through the church and it’s word. • The church was the center of daily life. People went to church like they watch television today.
C. Spiritual Protection (cont) • If people did not follow the church’s rules, they were led to believe they would go to hell or purgatory • People must repent their sins and help the church or they would be ostracized from society • People had to do good deeds, give the church a percentage of the money (taxes and charity), and follow all church rules.
C. Spiritual Protection (cont) • The cultural power of calling on saints for help • The Supernatural power of Relics • Christian burial near the Church altar
C. Spiritual Protection (cont) • The church was there to guide people into heaven and to control the base feelings of human kind. • Salvation was only for the holy. • Monks and nuns dedicated their lives to the church away from society and often took vows of poverty, chastity, silence, study, work, and charity.
Spiritual Protection (cont.) • A Nunnery is where nuns (a cloister of nuns) lived • A prioress is a head nun • Nuns devote their lives to Christ—they are brides of Christ • The women were usually sent there as punishment from their fathers or other male relatives
Spiritual Protections (cont.) • Monks (those men who devoted their lives to Christ) lived in monasteries and did not interact with the public • Friars were members of the clergy who lived on the charity of the faithful only • Clerics are members of the church who also work for it • Parsons were the priest of a parish church (a village or manor’s church) • Pardoners gave out (or sold) tokens and relics that forgave people of their sins
Kings • Kings were chosen by God. They were the ones who ruled the lands and created the laws. • In order for Kings to protect their lands, they needed an army. • In exchange for money and land, kings appointed noblemen to protect the kingdom. • These noblemen were called vassals or lords
Lords: The mayors • Lords are the central figures of the feudal system. • They stay loyal to the king and receive a large chunk of land on loan (a fief) and the king’s protection • The Lord would swear an oath to serve in the army, help at court, pay taxes to the king, and help with order.
Knights: The Military • In return for service, the Lords would grant a fief to the knights in exchange for military service • Knights were usually sons of noblemen • Knights would either serve in the King’s Army or locally • Knights would often pay scutagea payment in money or goods to get out of serving in the army
Knights: A Noble Path Even when born into it, knights had to train for years. Page: a young boy of six or eight who trained as a knight by sword, spear, horse-riding, and wrestling. A knight would also be taught to read, write, sing, and behave in society. Squire: a teenaged knight-in-training who served a knight. He often served the knight’s meals, groomed his horse, polished his armor, assisted at tournaments, and dressed the knight. Squires also trained to fight wearing armor of 40+ pounds.
Knights: Chivalry • The Chivalric Code: • Defend the weak (women, children, elderly) • Be courteous to all women • Be loyal to the king • Serve God above all others • Be humble • Show mercy to the enemy (and no killing him while his back is turned or he is unarmed) • Be truthful and keep one’s word • Exhibit self-control
Peasants • In return for loyalty, work, and taxes, Lords would grant small pieces of lands and protection to peasants. • Peasants would work the land and usually had a specific trade or job.
Serfs: Not Slaves • Serfs owned nothing. • In exchange for working the land, they were able to farm a small tract to live off of. • They were tied to the land and could not leave. • They received protection from invaders
Daily Rules and Life Primogeniture: A system where the first born son inherits everything after the father dies. Only the first born can inherit. The other son must work. Women never inherit anything. They are owned by men.
Courtly Love Be humble and chaste Do not break up another relationship Be honest and speak no evil Be polite Do not reveal a secret love affair Choose someone you can actually marry Be modest Do not be greedy
B. Life in a Medieval Castle • Castles were far from paradise. They were cold and drafty—usually made of stone. They were usually surrounded by moats.
Women • Women had no rights and were owned by their fathers, brothers, husbands, or closest male relative. • A woman was sold to the highest bidder or who could best align families. Love did not equal marriage. It was a business deal. • If a woman was tainted or could not marry, she was usually sent to a nunnery. • Women were seen as evil. A menstruating woman was avoided because she could bewitch you with her blood. (Eve)
Punishment • Life was harsh and brutal, so was punishment • Torture was common • Crimes against the church or individuals usually ended in death. • If you owed money, you went to jail until the debt was paid. • No one fed or clothed you in jail. Your family had to support you by paying to feed you. • The church thought God would protect you if you were innocent.
B. Life in a Medieval Village • Living conditions of the serfs • Striking lack of privacy for family members • Variety of dietary options for peasants • The central role of bread in the peasant diet—80% of caloric content
B. Life in a Medieval Village (cont) • Types of meals eaten by villagers • Beer: the universal drink of northern Europe • Accidents as a way of life in manorial villages • Medieval view of children
B. Life in a Medieval Village (cont) • Center of manorial life was the village church • Village church services • Life was short and frightening for village peasants • Village life was strictly hierarchical • Village life was also very communal • Village life was always very local