The Middle Ages 1066-1485 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Middle Ages 1066-1485

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  1. The Middle Ages1066-1485

  2. Norman Conquest • October 1066 Duke William defeats King Harold, the last of the Anglo-Saxon kings • Radically affected English history, language, and culture • Culture reflects both Anglo-Saxons and Normans • Brought emphasis on law and order • Provided cultural unity • Brought England into the mainstream European civilization

  3. William the Conqueror • Illegitimate son of the previous duke of Normandy • Believed the throne should be his • Efficient and ruthless soldier • Wanted to rule the Anglo-Saxons (not wipe them out) • Gave land from fallen English lords to his own men

  4. The Domesday Book • Due to William, an inventory of almost every piece of property was created • People were able to be taxed based on ownership for the first time

  5. Feudalism • Based on hierarchy • Centralized military, political, and economic power

  6. Feudalism

  7. Knighthood • Males above the Serf class were expected to be warriors • Training • Started at an early age • Trained away from home • “Dubbed” hit on the shoulder to prove his knightliness • Knightly Code • Strict rules of conduct grounded on loyalty

  8. Chivalry • Comes from the French word “chevalier” (knight who rode a horse) • Complete code of conduct • Loyalty to king • Faith in Christianity • Fair fighting • Respect for women • Aid to those in need

  9. Courtly Love • Knights had “special” female fans of high position – she was “out of reach” • The knight would wear her colors or say kind things about her • Idealized attitude about women • Did not change women’s social status • Lead to the “Romance” literary genre

  10. Women • No rights • Always subservient to a man (father, husband, brother) • Her level respect depended on her “man’s” status • Perceived value was the worth of the land she brought into a marriage

  11. City Classes • People started moving to the cities as the population grew • City Classes developed • Lower • Middle • Upper Middle • Free from power of lords • Created art and literature for themselves

  12. The Crusades • 1095-1270 • Series of wars between European Christians and Muslims • Jerusalem and the Holy Land as prize • Exposed Europe and England to Middle East civilization

  13. Thomas à Becket • 1118-1170 • Norman • Rose to great power under Henry II (Henry hoped to gain power in disputes with the Church through Beckett) • Named Arch Bishop of Canterbury • After Beckett took the pope’s side in too many disputes, King Henry stated “Will no one rid me of this turbulent priest?” • 4 of Henry’s knights took him literally and murdered Beckett in his own cathedral

  14. Thomas à Becket • Named Saint Thomas the Martyr • Led to • Backlash against Henry II • Corruption in the Church

  15. The Church • Fostered unity throughout Europe • Continued to be the center for learning • Monasteries the libraries and publishers of the time • Latin remained the international language of the educated • The Pope = the king of all kings

  16. The Magna Carta • 1215 King John was forced to sign • Weakened the Church’s growing power • Became the basis for English constitutional law

  17. The 100 Years War • 1st national war • England vs. France • Based on claims to the French throne by Edward III and Henry V • Forced a cultural shift away from knights to yeomen (small landowners) • Shift of power to yeoman after the fall of feudalism which paves way for democracy

  18. The Black Death • 1348-1349 • Highly contagious • Spread through fleas from infected rats • Reduced the population by 1/3 • Created labor shortage • Gave the lower classes more power • Fall of feudalism/Serfs free