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the middle ages 1066-1485
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the middle ages 1066-1485

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    1. AKA The Dark Ages The Medieval Times (not the themed restaurant at the beach) The Middle Ages1066-1485

    2. 1066: Duke William of Normandy defeats and kills King Herald of England Begins the Norman Conquest which drastically affects development of English history, character, and language The Normans do not withdraw from England. They stay to rule. The Battle of Hastings

    3. William was the illegitimate son of the Duke of Normandy (relative of English king Edward the Confessor) Edward dies childless William claims he was promised the throne Harold has other plans and takes over William take his army and goes to claim what he thought was legally his. The Tabloid Version

    4. Did not want to destroy England Wanted to rule Anglo-Saxon culture survives and mixes subtly with Norman language and culture Emphasis on law and order Williams Plan

    5. When you take over a new land, what is your first act as leader? Find out what you control! William called for an inventory of property (land, livestock, buildings) This inventory became the basis for taxation The Domesday Book

    6. English kings remained Dukes in Normandy Created a powerhouse that brought England into mainstream European civilization Holdings of fallen English lords divided among Williams followers Brought with them their language (French) and their lifestyle (feudalism) Norman Changes

    7. Caste System Property System Military System System of Social Behavior Based on a hierarchy with God as the supreme overlord-landowner-general Feudalism

    8. Heirarchy

    9. When an overlord was weak, the pyramid would break down A strong vassal might refuse his obligations, leading to battles between armor-clad knights around moated castles. Problems with Feudalism

    10. The primary duty of a man above a serf was military allegiance to his lord. Boys trained early to become warriors. After the training the warrior was dubbed a knight with the new title sir and full rights of the warrior caste. Based on loyalty with a strong system of codes (Chivalry and Courtly Love) First duty was to maintain and defend the church; second was to defend earthly lords and native lands Knights

    11. Peasant: Childbearing, housework, hard fieldwork Higher Class: Household supervision, childbearing ALWAYS subservient to a male (husband, father, brother) No political rights Depending on her social standing, she demanded respect and was important to the chivalric code Womans Place in Society

    12. Code of ideals and behaviors governing knights and gentlewomen Includes the following characteristics: Prowess: The ability to beat others in battle through personal bravery, physical strength, and skill in the use of arms Loyalty: General trustworthiness, could be relied upon to use military capacities as so sworn Generosity: Among chief chivalric virtues, considered a complete disregard of caution in the use of money Chivalry

    13. Courtesy: Rules for war- it was unethical to attack an unarmed man Prestige: Usually based on fame for soldierly deeds, considered good to have deeds recounted after death Knights rarely violated these rules, even without feudal obligations Chivalry continued

    14. The idea that by acting in the name of a lady a knight would become better and braver Probably based on a cult that worshiped the Virgin Mary and is ideally nonsexual Improved and idealized the role of women Courtly Love

    15. People began moving into the cities Eventually makes the feudal system obsolete Lower, middle and upper classes Emerging merchant class with its own taste in art and the ability to pay for what it wanted Ballads, Mystery Plays and Morality Plays became popular with these classes. They focused on life and religion. New City Classes

    16. A series of wars waged in the 11th, 12th, 13th centuries by Christian Europe against the followers of Mohammed Jerusalem and the Holy Lands were the prize Began in 1096 Richard the Lionheart gained fame through the Crusades Did not win control of Jerusalem Did benefit mathematics, astronomy, architecture and led to a richer way of life Basis of legends that led to The DaVinci Code, etc. The Crusades

    17. The pilgrims in The Canterbury Tales are journeying to his shrine A Norman who became a chancellor under Henry II Everyone belonged to the Church of Rome Henry was a vassal of the Pope. He though Becket would take his side on issues with the Pope and give him the upper hand. Appointed him Archbishop of Canterbury. Becket sided with the Pope The Martyrdom of Thomas Becket

    18. December 1170 in anger Henry says, Will no one rid me of this meddlesome priest? Four of his knights took him literally and killed Becket in the Cathedral at Canterbury Resulted in the cult of St. Thomas the Martyr which set the king back Spawned corruption in the church (see The Canterbury Tales) Fostered cultural unity- church becomes a center of learning More on Becket

    19. Brought a return to older, independent, democratic tendencies King John signed in 1215 at Runnymede Became the basis for English constitutional law (trial by jury, legislative taxation) The Magna Carta

    20. Lasted 116 years England vs. France fought in Europe England was not successful DID successfully unify England, provided a sense of nationalism Replaces the knight in shining armor with the yeoman/farmer with a longbow and arrows Contributes to the fall of feudalism The Hundred Years War

    21. The Bubonic Plague struck England in 1348-49 Highly contagious Spread by fleas who bit infected rats, then bit humans Reduced the population by 1/3 Caused a labor shortage which gave lower classes more leverage Resulted in freedom for serfs- fall of feudalism The Black Death

    22. 1485 Reconciled the warring houses of York and Lancaster Now looked upon as the end of the Middle Ages Marriage of King Henry VII