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The Medieval Period 1066-1485

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  1. The Medieval Period 1066-1485 English 10 Academic

  2. The Medieval Period: Feudalism • Beginning Event:William the Conqueror won the Battle of Hastings and became the first English king. • He introduced the feudal system to England. • Political & economic system • King owned all land andparceled (divided) it out • Purpose: provide security • Hierarchy - people couldn’t move between classes/roles

  3. Feudalism

  4. The Medieval Period: Heirs of William the Conqueror • Henry II • Reformed the judicial system • Introduced juries & royal courts • Henry’s wife, Eleanor(a former French queen) brought the French concept of chivalryto England • Strict set of rules for gentlemanly behavior • Both amoral&behavioral code • Combination of Christian & military values (faith, modesty, loyalty, courtesy, bravery & honor)

  5. The Medieval Period: Heirs of William the Conqueror • Richard I (Richard the Lionhearted) • Henry & Eleanor’s 1st son; heir to throne • Ruled for 10 years • Fought in the Crusades • Was in France for most of his reign • John • Richard’s brother • Plotted to kill Richardwhile he was away • Forced to sign the Magna Carta Think Robin Hood!

  6. The Medieval Period: Heirs of William the Conqueror • John was forced by barons to sign the Magna Cartain 1215 because government was bankrupt • Beginning of democracy in England! • Limitedroyal power • Gave more power to the nobles (barons) • Led to Model Parliament • House of Commons • House of Lords

  7. The Medieval Period: Decline of Feudalism • Townsbegan to grow • walls went around perimeter • narrow, crowded streets • houses built close together • centers of trade & art • Land ownershipwasn’t the only way to make money • Merchants & craftsmen formed guilds(groups/associations) • helped them unite & offered chance to advance • improved quality of products & increased profits • controlled flow & price of goods

  8. The Medieval Period: Decline of Feudalism • Crusades • Series of military expeditions • Christians tried to take Jerusalem from Muslims • Helped bring the development of an economy based on money • Increased trade(domestic & international) • Peasants were needed to fight in wars • Opportunity for career path • Violates hierarchy of feudalism • Universities grew (Italy, Spain, France, England)

  9. The Medieval Period: End of Medieval Period • The 100 Years’ War (1337-1453) • Off and on war between England and Francewho were fighting over control of the English throne • Helped lead to the War of the Roses • Inspired Joan of Arc • Black Death: plague that killed 1/3 of Europe’s population (20 million+ people) • Ending Event:War of the Roses(1485-1487); Henry VII (Tudor) becomes king of England

  10. The Medieval Period: War of the Roses • Ending Event of Medieval period:War of the Roses Two families claim to have power of English throne House of York(white roses):Richard III House ofLancaster (red roses):Henry VII House of Tudor formed when Henry VII (Lancaster) married Elizabeth I (York) Eventually, Henry VII became king

  11. The Medieval Period: Literature • Strong oraltradition: most stories recited, sung &/or acted • Most people illiterate • Church used plays & songs to instruct people who couldn’t read the Bible • Books written by hand ($, rare) • Illuminated manuscripts – elaborately decorated handwritten documents, usually done by monks

  12. The Medieval Period: Literature • Popular Forms • Folk ballads (poetry) • Mystery & miracle plays (drama) • Morality tales (literature) • Romance tales (literature) • Arthurian legends – King Arthur (literature)