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The Middle Ages 1066-1485

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  1. The Middle Ages1066-1485

  2. After the Norman Invasion England ( and the world) would forever be changed… This was due to one man…

  3. William, Duke of Normandy also known as William the Conqueror

  4. His Claim to the English Throne… • William, Duke of Normandy claimed the English throne • Promised to him by King Edward the Confessor • However, William’s half brother, Harold, was crowned after Edward’s death.

  5. William, cont. • Learned that his throne had been taken; began preparing for invasion. • Attacks England at Hastings; defeats the Anglo-Saxons and Harold • William crowned King William I on Christmas Day in 1066

  6. William’s Reign • Ruled England for 21 years • Fused a strong French government and military with culture of Anglo-Saxons • William wanted to rule the Anglo-Saxons; not eliminate them. • Because of this, England had, and still has, a culture influenced by both Norman and Anglo-Saxon culture and language.

  7. The Feudal System • William introduced the Feudal System • system based on landholding by a lord or king, rented land in return for allegiance and military service. • It was a caste system

  8. Feudal Relationships, cont. • Feudalism: King: all powerful overlord and landowner Lord: noble who had power to grant land to vassals; Vassal: aristocratic dependent tenant who received land from a lord in exchange for military service. Knight: armored warrior. Vassals provided their lords with military service; the larger the land grant, the more knights a Vassal had to supply the king Serf: peasant who worked on, and were bound to vassals’ lands.

  9. The Feudal System, cont. • The Feudal System led to many disputes over property; in 1086 an inventory of every piece of property ( this included the number or cattle, chickens, etc. that a man owned) was created • This inventory was the Domesday Book. • Settled disputes over property.

  10. Domesday, cont. • Title represented William’s judgment of his subject’s financial worth and God’s judgment on their moral worth • First time in European History that taxes were based on what an individual owned. ( this book still exists in London)

  11. The Domesday Book • http://clearlyexplained.com/answers/domesday-book.jpg

  12. Knights in Armor • Boys trained at early age for knighthood ( began around 7 years). • Training usually took place in a home other than their own for stricter environment. • Parents had to be wealthy enough to buy horse, armor, and weapons.

  13. Knighthood, cont. • Knights often sons of noblemen • Instructed in good manners, social skills, such as singing, dancing, and playing chess • Learned to use a sword and shield • At about age of 14, a boy would become a squire ( personal assistant to a knight) • When training was completed, was ceremonially tapped on the shoulder; youth was a man with the title “Sir” and had all the rights of the warrior caste

  14. The Burden of Armor • Some suits weighed up to 120 pounds • The armor could be as fatal as enemy. • Death from suffocation, heart failure, and drowning were as common as wounds from the enemy. • Battles usually scheduled to allow knights time to dress

  15. 1. Helm (Helmet) 2. Gorget 3. Pauldrons 4. Spaulders 5. Chainmaille (Gussets) 6. Vambrace 7. Gauntlets 8. Breastplate 9. Faulds (Tassets) 10. Kneecup 11. Greaves 12. Sabatons (Solorets) 13. Coif 14. Arming Cap 15. Gambeson 16. Haubergeon (Hauberk)

  16. Code of Chivalry • Chivalry: a system of ideals and social codes ruling behavior of knights and gentlewomen. • The rules included: **taking oath of loyalty to the overlord and observing certain rules of warfare, i.e. not attacking an unarmed man, loyalty to one’s land of birth, being honest… **adoring a particular lady ( this was not always one’s wife) ** Chivalry seen as a means of self improvement

  17. Chivalry, cont. The introduction of Chivalry resulted because of three ideas: **more emphasis on Christian ideologies *** women’s place in society a bit more elevated, although this was only socially; **** refinement of royalty; more emphasis on the royal class.

  18. Courtly Love • The ideal form of courtly love was non-sexual • A knight might wear his lady’s colors in battle, or compose poetry, song • lady always was “pure and out of reach.” This lady represented the ideal.

  19. Courtly Love, cont. • She is in complete control of the love relationship, while he owes her obedience and submission • The knight's love for the lady inspires him to do great deeds, in order to be worthy of her love or to win her favor.

  20. Courtly Love, cont. • Poets and story tellers used idea of courtly love for plots. Example: The King Author Saga When Lancelot and Guinevere cross the line of courtly and physical love, the whole social system represented by the Round Table begins to collapse. Camelot collapses because the code was broken.

  21. And the Assignment Is… • You will get into groups of 3-4 • You have a choice: 1) You will create a recruitment sign for joining the knighthood or 2) You will create a Code of Chivalry in the 21st Century/ or rules of Courtly Love in the 21st Century poster

  22. The Woman’s Role • Women did not have any political rights • She was always subservient to a man, whether it was her father, brother, or husband. • Her father’s or husband’s social standing determined the degree of respect she commanded

  23. Women, cont. • Mostly, women confined to house chores, cooking, sewing, weaving, spinning. Some trained with weapons to defend homes/castles. • Peasant women led lives of child bearing, housework, and fieldwork • Women of higher rank involved with childbearing and household supervision. • Some women of higher rank may have managed husband’s estate while men away at battle or business;

  24. Women, cont. • Some women known as witches, said to have healing powers. • Others became nuns • Some women held other occupations: apothecary, blacksmith, merchants, midwives, others focused on singing, dancing, playing an instrument, writing.

  25. Medieval Literature • Chivalry brought new literature, the Romance. • A narrative that traces adventures of a brave knight or other hero; has to overcome danger for the love of a noble lady or some other high ideal/ morals • Idealized heroes fight and always conquer evil. Example: King Arthur, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, • A romance hero is larger than life figure, usually of mysterious origins, who performs extraordinary deeds with the aid of magic.

  26. Literature, cont. • The Ballad: Medieval population grew, larger number of people began living in towns and cities. Developed the city classes- lower, middle and upper middle; A “people’s art” began to emerge. • city people were free, not tied to land . Their point of view expressed in ballads.

  27. Literature, cont. • Ballads are songs, or songlike poems that tell a story in a rhythmic language. There is a regular rhythm and rhyme, language is simple and direct. • Every ballad includes certain features: *tragic subject matter *omitted details, *supernatural events * a refrain, or a repeated word, line, or group of lines. • From French word meaning “dancing song.”

  28. The Crusades • A series of holy wars( 1095-1270) waged by European Christians against Muslims. • 1095, Pope Urban II sent out plea to Christians in Europe • He believed it the Christian’s duty to wage war against Muslims occupying Jerusalem, other places considered holy to the Christian faith

  29. Crusades, cont. • Pope’s plea led to a series of disastrous military exhibitions known as The Crusades • For Over two hundred years Crusaders left from Europe to conquer Jerusalem • The pope promised absolution from sins to those who fought in these wars • Thousands of Jews and Muslims killed

  30. Crusades, cont. • What started out as a Holy pilgrimage, turned into one of greed. • Knights would kill anyone in their way, take property, money, etc.

  31. The Children’s Crusade The Children’s Crusade • Little information on The Children’s Crusade; some believe it is a myth • After 4th Crusade, Europe had not taken over Jerusalem. • The Children’s Crusade brought back hope that Europe could take over The Holy Land. • In 1212, two groups of children set toward Jerusalem

  32. Children’s Crusade, cont. • The Children’s Crusade never made it to Jerusalem; believed some died of exhaustion, settled in towns, sold into slavery. _______________________________________ • Even though crusades were disastrous, Europe benefitted from contact with the “sophisticated Middle East.” • Exposure to mathematics, astronomy, architecture

  33. Thomas a Becket • Thomas a Becket (1118-1170) was a Norman • Rose to great power as prime minister under reign of his friend, Henry II • At this time, all Christians belonged to Catholic Church, King Henry was head of the Catholic church, and God’s representative on Earth • The pope was extremely powerful, controlled most of the crowned rulers • Henry believed if he made his friend, Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury ( head of the Catholic Church in England) he would have “the upper hand in disputes with the Catholic church.”

  34. Thomas a Becket, cont. • Thomas took pope’s side, more often than Henry’s. Henry got angry • “Will no one rid me of this turbulent priest?” • Taking Henry’s words seriously, four of his knights murdered Becket in his own Cathedral

  35. Eye-Witness Account “Then the third knight inflicted a terrible wound as he lay, by which the sword was broken against the pavement, and the crown, which was large was separated from the head; so that the blood white with the brain and the brain red with blood, dyed the surface of the virgin mother Church with the life and death of the confessor and martyr in the colors of the lily and the rose.” --- Thomas Grim

  36. Set Back for the Monarchy • Public outrage toward Becket’s murder led to devotion to Saint Thomas the Martyr, created a backlash against Henry; added to troubles with the Catholic Church. • Church had positive effect of providing cultural unity- a system of beliefs and symbols that united the cultures of Europe. • Church still the center of learning, and Latin remained the international language • The leader, the pope, was “king of all kings”

  37. The Magna Carta • Latin for “Great Charter” • Signed by King John in 1215 • Even though John had the backing of the pope, the barons forced John into signing it. • The signing was a defeat of total papal power ( in other words, the Pope did not have supreme power anymore)

  38. Magna Carta, cont. • Because the aristocracy was signing only for its benefit, the rights of the common people did not change. • Magna Carta became the basis of English constitutional law: ** rights to trial by jury ** rights to a speedy trial ** equal justice under the law

  39. The Hundred Years War • Described as first national war • Waged by England against France • Based on weak claims to the throne of France by two English kings: Edward III and Henry V

  40. Hundred Years War, cont. • After the war, English no longer represented by the Knight in Shining armor • Represented by the green-clad yeoman- a small landowner-with his long bow. • English yeomen formed the main group of the English armies in France

  41. Hundred Years War, cont. • yard-long arrows could fly over castle walls and pierce a knight’s armor • small landowners became dominant force in the new society which originated from the Feudal System.

  42. The Black Death • Also called The Bubonic Plague • Struck England in 1348-1349 • Highly contagious, spread by fleas from infected rats • Reduced nation’s population by a third • Caused a labor shortage, and therefore gave lower classes more bargaining power over their overlords. • Because of the plague, serfs gained their freedom. • Feudalism was now over