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Memory - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Memory
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  1. Memory • Introduction • Stage Model of Memory • Process Model of Memory • Problems in Memory • The Biology of Memory

  2. II. Stage Model of Memory • A.k.a. Atkinson-Shiffrin Memory Model

  3. Sensory Memory

  4. Two Examples of Sensory Memory • Iconic: • brief memory for things we have seen • Echoic: • brief memory for things we have heard

  5. Working/Short-Term Memory

  6. Memory Tests

  7. S U A B N A R S M I B O U I U S A N B A I R S I B M I O U

  8. Long-Term Memory

  9. The Serial Position Effect

  10. III. Process Model of Memory

  11. III. Memory Processes Encoding Retrieval Storage • Getting information into memory • Recalling or using previously encoded and stored information • Retaining information in memory

  12. Encoding • The process of transforming information into a form that can be stored and later retrieved.

  13. Types of Encoding • Automatic: encoding that happens without having to try • Effortful: encoding that only happens when the proper effort is made

  14. Memory Tests • List 1: How positive or negative is the word (on a scale from 1-9)? • List 2: Is there an “e” in the word (Y or N)?

  15. List 1 • coin, skate, church, fork, trunk, pocket, trail, flower, clock, bank, paint, time, deep, bird, sample, move, rain, pipe

  16. List 2 • shade, desk, money, pitch, garden, hammer, dress, horse, month, door, belt, train, count, fire, song, bureau, foot, magic

  17. Depth of Processing • “Deeper” encoding results in easier recall • Deep encoding focuses on things such as meaning, comprehension, or understanding

  18. Craik & Tulving (1975)

  19. Storage

  20. Retrieval

  21. General Memory Principle • If the conditions of encoding are similar to the conditions of retrieval, then recall is better.

  22. Context-Dependent Memory If the environment of encoding is similar to the environment of retrieval, then recall is better. • Words heard on land are better recalled when on land. • Words heard under water are better recalled when under water. • Recall was poorer when the learning and testing contexts did not match. Percentage of words recalled 40% 30 20 10 Water/water Water/land Land/water Land/land 0 Different contexts for hearing and recall Same contexts for hearing and recall

  23. State-Dependent Memory • If your internal state during encoding is similar to your internal state during retrieval, then recall is better.

  24. Mood-Congruent Recall • We have better recall for events that match our current mood.

  25. IV. Problems in Memory

  26. Forgetting

  27. Flashbulb Memories

  28. Flashbulb Memories • Vivid memories of emotionally significant events. • Research suggests that they can be surprisingly inaccurate for some people • Vivid recall doesn’t always translate to increased accuracy

  29. Memory Test (the last one!)

  30. False Memories

  31. Interference

  32. V. The Biology of Memory

  33. LTP

  34. Intelligent Thought & Behavior • Problem Solving • Obstacles to Thinking & Reasoning • Intelligence & Intelligence Testing

  35. I. Problem Solving • Problem Solving Steps • Frame/interpret the problem

  36. The Crow & the Trains Problem

  37. I. Problem Solving • Problem Solving Steps • Frame/interpret the problem • Generate many possible solutions/brainstorm • Test a solution (algorithms, heuristics, trial & error, insight, etc…) • Evaluate results • Repeat steps 1-3 if necessary

  38. II. Obstacles to Thinking & Reasoning

  39. “Would you like to buy a magazine subscription?”(from Dan Ariely’s book Predictably Irrational) 16% 0% 84% 68% X 32%

  40. Parole Decisions of Judges(Danziger, 2011)

  41. Confirmation Bias • The tendency to: • search for information that supports our beliefs and… • ignore or distort contradictory evidence. • The death penalty study.

  42. Fixation • The inability to see a problem from a new perspective • Examples: • Mental Set: The tendency to persist in solving problems with solutions that have worked in the past. • Functional Fixedness: The tendency to view objects as functioning only in their usual, customary, or traditional ways.