class 2b natural resources and energy n.
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Class 2b: Natural Resources and Energy. Today’s class. What is a resource? Ecological footprints Natural resources and resource-based economies Example: Gabon Energy and oil. What is a resource?. Naturally occurring material Useful to society Able to be exploited (used)

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today s class
Today’s class
  • What is a resource?
  • Ecological footprints
  • Natural resources and resource-based economies
  • Example: Gabon
  • Energy and oil
what is a resource
What is a resource?
  • Naturally occurring material
  • Useful to society
  • Able to be exploited (used)
  • Availability depends on:
    • Physical characteristics of the resource
    • Economic and technological condition of society
renewable resources
Renewable resources
  • Regenerated as fast as they’re used
  • Energy sources
  • Potentially renewable: must be carefully managed
    • Water
    • Forests
    • Soils
nonrenewable resources
Nonrenewable resources
  • Finite on a human time scale
  • All minerals
  • Fossil fuels
    • Generated like sedimentary rocks
    • Coal, oil, natural gas
tragedy of the commons
Tragedy of the commons
  • Resources held in common; free access
  • Wealth measured by resource use
  • No incentive to conserve
  • Tragedy is inevitable: an individual will overuse public resources when it is in his or her best interests
  • Solutions?
example atlantic cod
Example: Atlantic cod
  • Grand Banks off Canadian East Coast
  • For 500 years, rich commercial fishery
  • 1950s technology led to 4x catch rate
  • Population crashed in 1980s; 70% decrease in catch
  • Now moratorium on Northern Cod
resource consumption
Resource consumption
  • Ecological footprint
  • Average productive land per person: 4.5 acres
  • Average land used by US residents: 24 acres
  • What’s your footprint?
mineral resources
Mineral resources
  • Mineral: inorganic; specific chemistry, hardness, density, crystal
  • Location depends on geology: large size or luck
  • No one country has everything
mineral resources1
Mineral resources
  • Six stages in mineral exploration
    • Exploration
    • Extraction
    • Concentration
    • Refining
    • Transporting
    • Manufacturing
  • Each stage has its own geography
mineral exploration
Mineral exploration
  • Where does exploration take place?
    • Geology
    • Politics
    • Economics
    • Technology
  • The less risk and cost, the better
  • Exploration determines where reserves are
resource reserves
Resource reserves
  • Estimated vs. proven
  • Remember: economics and technology
resource reserves1
Resource reserves
  • Estimated vs. proven
  • Remember: economics and technology
mineral extraction
Mineral extraction
  • Where does extraction take place? See Step 1!
mineral extraction1
Mineral extraction
  • Where does extraction take place? See Step 1!

Copper City

Copper Cove

Copperopolis

Coppervale

mineral concentration and refining
Mineral concentration and refining
  • Two similar stages
  • Ex: Copper uses 0.5% ore: where?
  • Near the extraction site
mineral concentration and refining1
Mineral concentration and refining
  • Two similar stages
  • Ex: Copper uses 0.5% ore: where?
  • Near the extraction site
mineral processing manufacturing
Mineral processing/manufacturing
  • Depends on the mineral: small or large quantities?
  • Ex: Copper in small pieces: where?
mineral processing manufacturing1
Mineral processing/manufacturing
  • Depends on the mineral: small or large quantities?
  • Ex: Copper in small pieces: where?
example gold
Example: Gold
  • Long history as a valuable metal
    • Conducts electricity; ductile
    • Used as currency
    • Aesthetic value
  • Occurs everywhere, even in seawater
  • Placer vs. lode gold
    • Weathered gold washed downstream
    • Veins under the surface
example california gold rush
Example: California Gold Rush
  • Geologically right: former seabed
  • Politically right: just transferred from Mexico
  • Technology evolved to extract more gold
    • Initially placer mining
    • Then hydraulic mining
    • Then cyanide heap leaching
example california gold rush1
Example: California Gold Rush
  • Gold helped Union win Civil War
  • Population boom made CA a state in 2 years
  • Agriculture began to boom
  • San Francisco as gateway
  • Massive amounts of erosion and deposition
    • More flooding in Sacramento
  • Processing involved mercury and arsenic
  • Don’t eat American River fish!
example coltan
Example: Coltan
  • Mineral that includes tantalum
  • Used in cell phones, laptops, etc.
  • Found in Australia, Central Africa
example coltan1
Example: Coltan
  • Mineral that includes tantalum
  • Used in cell phones, laptops, etc.
  • Found in Australia, Central Africa
  • Good source of income for Congolese
  • But, militias overrun protected areas and smuggle out coltan
  • So Nokia et al. go to Australia instead
energy
Energy
  • The capacity to do work or transfer heat
  • (Nearly) All energy comes from the sun
  • Primary energy sources: heat or do work directly
  • Secondary sources: turn turbines to generate electricity
energy1
Energy
  • 90% of US energy from fossil fuels
  • Remainder nuclear, hydro
  • Different geography for each source
    • Coal, natural gas
    • Hydro
    • Nuclear
    • Solar
    • Wind
nuclear

Wind

Nuclear

Hydro

Solar

slide31
Oil
  • Worldwide and in US, 40% of energy
  • 2/3 of US use is transportation
  • Cheaper to import oil than extract it here (60% imported)
  • Depends on relationships with exporters
  • 2002: Canada, Saudi Arabia, Mexico, Venezuela, Nigeria, Iraq
slide32
OPEC
  • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
  • Cartel that sets oil prices and supply
    • Formed to resist European companies
    • Holds 70% of reserves
  • Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE; Algeria, Libya, Nigeria; Venezuela; Indonesia
1970 oil crises
1970 oil crises
  • 1973 Israel fights off Egypt and Syria
  • OPEC wanted to punish Israel’s allies
  • Plus frustration with 6% of population using 33% of energy
  • Quadrupled oil prices
  • Led to gas shortages, efficiency improvements
  • Today, conservation no longer a concern
oil reserves
Oil reserves
  • When will we run out? No, when will production decline?
  • 10% rule: production is about 10% of reserves
  • New discoveries needed to keep production high
  • In 2003, 25 billion barrels were used, but only 8 billion were discovered
  • And consumption is only increasing
oil reserves1
Oil reserves
  • Resource use follows Hubberts curve
  • When is the peak of production?
  • Between 1999 and 2010
  • What happens economically?
solutions
Solutions?
  • Technological improvements
  • Substitutions
  • Taking oil by force
  • New sites of exploration
    • Less environmentally friendly
    • New parts of the world