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Energy Resources. Geothermal Energy: A Free Lunch?. Environmental Problems of Geothermal Energy It is Finite Heat Sources Can Be Exhausted (Geysers, California) Sulfur Emissions Disposal of Mineralized Brines . Technical Problems of Geothermal Energy Corrosion Mineral Deposition in Pipes

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geothermal energy a free lunch
Geothermal Energy: A Free Lunch?

Environmental Problems of Geothermal Energy

  • It is Finite
  • Heat Sources Can Be Exhausted (Geysers, California)
  • Sulfur Emissions
  • Disposal of Mineralized Brines

Technical Problems of Geothermal Energy

  • Corrosion
  • Mineral Deposition in Pipes
  • Non-Productive gases (Carbon dioxide, methane, etc.)
  • Low Temperatures
  • Low Thermodynamic Efficiency
thermodynamic efficiency1
Thermodynamic Efficiency
  • Eff. = (Ti - Tf)/Ti
  • T = Degrees Kelvin = Degrees C + 273
  • Ti = initial temperature
  • Tf = final temperature
thermodynamic efficiency2
Thermodynamic Efficiency

Automobile Engine

  • Ti = 1200 C = 1473 K
  • Tf = 500 C = 773 K
  • Eff = (1473 - 773)/1473 = 48%

Typical Steam Power Plant

  • Ti = 700 C = 973 K
  • Tf = 200 C = 473 K
  • Eff = (973 - 473)/973 = 51%
thermodynamic efficiency3
Thermodynamic Efficiency

Geothermal Power Plant

  • Ti = 150 C = 423 K
  • Tf = 80 C = 353
  • Eff = (423 - 353)/423 = 17%

Actual achieved efficiencies

  • Automobile on Highway: about 5%
  • Geothermal Plant: 5% or So, Sometimes less than 1%
nuke u lar energy
Nuke-u-lar Energy
  • U-235 fissions to lighter nuclei
  • Naturally 0.7% in uranium ore
  • Must be enriched to 3-4% for reactors
  • Mining is conventional metal mining
  • Radium (decay product) is principal problem in mine wastes
radiation hazards
Radiation Hazards
  • Problem in the body is ionization and creation of free radicals
  • Alpha particles (He nuclei) have +2 charge
    • Do not penetrate skin
    • Worst ionization problem if ingested
  • Beta particles (Electrons)
    • Weak penetration ability
    • Moderate ionization problem
  • Gamma Rays (High Energy photons)
    • Great Penetrating ability
    • Lowest ionization ability
plutonium
Plutonium
  • Produced in small amounts in civilian reactors
  • Toxicity of Plutonium is a Myth
    • Chemically it is comparable to U, Th
    • Ra and Rn are worse radiation hazards
    • Chemical plus Radiation hazard high
  • Main Problem: Long-lived waste product
  • Security issue: Can be Chemically Separated from Uranium
nuclear waste
Nuclear Waste
  • Contain until radiation decays to negligible levels (Pu = 24,000 years)
  • Possible Containment Schemes
    • Yucca Mountain
    • Crystalline Rock
    • Salt Domes
    • Subduction Zones?
    • Space?
  • Breeder Reactors?
    • Security Concerns
slide13
Coal
  • Delta, continental environments
    • Autochthonous: Grew in Place
    • Allochthonous: Transported Log Mats
  • Carbonized Woody Material
  • Often fossilized trees, leaves present
petroleum
Petroleum

A hydrocarbon molecule

What organisms make these?

Answer: None

petroleum1
Petroleum
  • Lots of organisms make these, however
  • Fatty Acids
  • Probable source: Marine plankton
hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons
  • Methane = Natural Gas
  • Propane-Butane = Bottled Gas
  • Iso-octane (2,2,4 Trimethylpentane) = Gasoline
  • Cetane (Hexadecane = C16 H34) = Diesel Fuel
  • Kerosene = 12-15 Carbons
  • Mineral oil, petroleum jelly, paraffin wax = 20-40 Carbons
  • Bitumen (Asphalt) ~ 50 Carbons
abiogenic petroleum
Abiogenic Petroleum?
  • 18Mg2SiO4 + 6Fe2SiO4 + 26H2O + CO2 → 12Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + 4Fe3O4 + CH4
  • Olivine + Water → Serpentine + Magnetite + Methane
  • nCH4 + nFe3O4 + nH2O → C2H6 + Fe2O3 + HCO3 + H+
  • Methane + Magnetite → Ethane + Hematite
  • Minority view in Russia
  • Resurgence among U.S. Right Wing
gas hydrates
Gas Hydrates
  • Hydrocarbons trapped in cage of water molecules
  • Freeze above 0 C under moderate pressure
  • Solid gas hydrates occur in marine sediments (“yellow ice”)
  • Potentially huge energy resource
  • Possible role in climate change?
economics
Economics
  • 2000 WINNEBAGO CHIEFTAIN SERIES M-36LP-DSL
  • Average Retail Price: $51,600
  • Suggested List: $140,851
  • Source: NADAGuides.com (23 April 2010)
  • Ten-Year Cost: $89,251
  • @$300/day = 297 days = 30 days/year
oil recovery
Oil Recovery
  • Primary: Natural Pressure Forces Oil to Surface
    • Recovery Rate 5 – 15%
  • Secondary: Pumping and Pressurized Fluids
    • Total After Secondary Recovery: 35-45%
  • Tertiary: Solvents, Steam, Carbon Dioxide
    • Total After Tertiary Recovery: 50-60%
  • No Underground Resource Recovery Gets All of the Resource
hubbert curves
Hubbert Curves
  • In 1956, Oil geologist M. King Hubbert noted that rates of oil production follow a bell-shaped curve.
  • Cumulative production follows a slanting S- curve
  • Production lags discovery by about ten years.
what if we find more oil
What if We Find More Oil?
  • Even a huge increase in total oil has very little effect on the peak and decline of production.
  • Why? We waste most of it on inefficient uses.
is there a lot more undiscovered oil
Is There a Lot More Undiscovered Oil?
  • 80 per cent of oil being produced today is from fields discovered before 1973.
  • In the 1990's oil discoveries averaged about seven billion barrels of oil a year, only one third of usage.
  • The discovery rate of multi-billion barrel fields has been declining since the 1940's, that of giant (500-million barrel) fields since the 1960's.
  • In 1938, fields with more than 10 million barrels made up 19% of all new discoveries, but by 1948 the proportion had dropped to only 3%.
u s petroleum use
U.S. Petroleum Use
  • 2009 - 7,121,644,500 barrels
  • 2007 - 6,257,125,000 barrels
  • 2006 - 6,384,780,000 barrels
  • 2005 - 6,470,457,000 barrels
  • 2004 - 6,410,770,000 barrels
  • 2003 - 6,175,244,000 barrels
  • 2002 - 5,945,585,000 barrels
  • = 19,498,000 barrels a day
  • = 1 billion barrels in < two months
global petroleum usage
Global Petroleum Usage
  • 2008 projection: 87 million barrels/day
  • = 31.8 billion barrels per year
  • = 1 billion barrels in 11.5 days
  • = 1000 barrels/second
  • U.S. = 25% of total
oil fantasies
Oil Fantasies

“America is sitting on top of a super massive 200 billion barrel Oil Field that could potentially make America Energy Independent and until now has largely gone unnoticed. Thanks to new technology the Bakken Formation in North Dakota could boost America’s Oil reserves by an incredible 10 times, giving western economies the trump card against OPEC’s short squeeze on oil supply and making Iranian and Venezuelan threats of disrupted supply irrelevant” (Next Energy News, 13 February 2008)

realty check
Realty Check
  • 200 billion barrels @ 20 million barrels a day = 10,000 days = 27 years
  • Then what?
  • Reality: maybe 10% of the oil is recoverable with known technology
  • The Bakken is a “tight” formation
  • Horizontal drilling can increase yields
canadian oil sands
Canadian Oil Sands
  • 170 billion recoverable barrels
  • 10 x larger total amount
  • Current production: 1.2 million barrels/day
  • Projected production in 2015 = 3 million barrels per day
  • 3 million barrels = 4 hours of U.S. petroleum consumption
some relevant quotes
Some Relevant Quotes

The internal-combustion engine used for automobiles is a fragile device compared with other prime movers -- even compared with the internal combustion engines used for diesel- electric locomotives that have been known to go over a million miles without mechanical overhauling.

some relevant quotes1
Some Relevant Quotes

... the energy-system efficiency of the motor car with petroleum motor fuel is, thus, 5 percent ... no one is proud of this accomplishment -- least of all the automotive-design engineers ... The trouble is, every time the design engineer manages to save a few BTU it is more than spent answering the clamor for softer tires, for radio, for better heaters, more lights, cigarette lighters and possibly even air conditioning.

some relevant quotes2
Some Relevant Quotes

Histories written a few centuries hence may describe the United States as a nation of such extraordinary technologic virility that we succeeded in finding ways of dissipating our natural wealth far more rapidly than any other nation. At any rate, we are having a wonderful time doing it. From the discussions in the earlier chapters of this book it is clear that the problem of energy for the United States is not one of the dim future. It is upon us now.

some relevant quotes3
Some Relevant Quotes

Our imports of petroleum are small but each year they become larger. By 1960 they are likely to be quite substantial. By 1970 they will almost certainly be huge -- if foreign oil is still available then in sufficient quantity... This tiny period of earth's life, when we are consuming its stored riches, is nearly over ... Fortunately for us there is still time for fundamental research [on alternative energy sources]. But not too much time.

some relevant quotes source
Some Relevant Quotes: Source

Eugene Ayres and Charles A Scarlott, 1952; Energy Sources -- The Wealth of the World, McGraw-Hill, 344p.

petroleum is a syllogism
Petroleum is a Syllogism
  • There is a finite amount of it in the world
  • We are using it and not replacing it
  • Therefore we will eventually run out of it
  • Any of this not clear?
the end of cheap oil
The End of Cheap Oil
  • Known petroleum can last at least a couple of centuries more, but…
  • It only flows through the rocks so fast.
  • No amount of drilling will make it flow faster, and careless drilling can shorten the lifetime of an oil field.
  • Sometime in the 21st century, global demand will outpace production capacity and…
  • Oil will go to the highest bidder.