Energy. Energy is defined as the ability to do work. Work is causing a change that would not otherwise occur. Energy Forms. Kinetic energy = energy of motion Light energy = electromagnetic radiation energy that travels through space as waves Potential energy = stored energy
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What are some other forms of energy?
can be converted
into kinetic energy
Kinetic energy can be converted into potential energy
This is really important !
is in adult beverages
Photosynthesis is the process where
green plants (& some bacteria) convert
light energy into the chemical energy contained in glucose molecules.
exposed to certain colors of light.
Always ONE WAY Flow
Plants that use CO2 directly from the air are called C3 plants (CO2 binds to a three carbon molecule when it enters the plants cells)
Common crops like oats, wheat, soybeans and rice
C3 plants close their stomata on hot, dry days to reduce the loss of water, but this also prevents CO2 from entering the leaves. Why is this a problem?
Alternate modes of incorporating carbon from CO2 have evolved in some plants, allowing them to save water without shutting down photostnthesis.
C4 plants are named for the four-carbon molecule that CO2 binds with inside the cell.
This molecule then shuttles the CO2 to a nearby cell, which can keep on making sugars even if the stomata are closed on a hot, dry day.
Corn and sugarcane are examples
CAM plants have adapted to very dry climates by opening their stomata and admitting CO2 only at night.
CO2 binds a four-carbon molecule at night and releases the CO2 in the same cell for photosynthesis during the day.
Examples are pineapples, cacti, and succulents like aloe and jade.
Food Chain= sequence of food transfers from producers thru several levels of consumers
Decomposers, mostly bacteria & fungi, are an important trophic level
= a network of interconnecting food chains
Remember the Second Law of Energy states that when energy is converted from one form to another, some energy will be unusable, usually lost as heat.On average, only about 10% of the energy eaten at each trophic level is stored as biomass in the next trophic level
to eat more plants and less animals?
Biogeochemical Cycles =any of the chemical circuits occurring in an ecosystem, involving both biotic and abiotic components of the ecosystem
Greenhouse Effect = Warming of atmosphere
caused by greenhouse gases, like
CO2, CH4 and others that absorb heat
and slow its escape from the Earth’s surface.
Carbon Dioxide or CO2
is the principle greenhouse gas
CO2 and other greenhouse gases act like
clear glass in a greenhouse or your car.
Steam-powered ships, railways, the internal combustion engine and electrical power generation were all developed by 1900 .
Coal Oil (gasoline) Natural Gas
Burning fossil fuels releases CO2 into the air
the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere
has increased about 30%,
mostly from burning fossil fuels.
At the present rate of increase by 2075 the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere will be double the amount at the start of the Industrial Revolution.
If CO2 does double by 2075 it is predicted
that the world’s average temperature
will increase by almost 4°F.
If it only rises 2°F it would be warmer than anytime in the last 100,000 years.
Melting of Polar Ice (including Greenland)
will raise sea level by 100 meters,
which will flood coastal areas.
For example, Miami, New York, Los Angeles
will all be underwater.
Our major agricultural area,
the central part of the United States,
will become much drier.
Most natural ecosystems will be affected
based on predictions from mathematical models.
Study of prehistoric periods of warming & cooling shows that the types and numbers of plants were altered dramatically by climate changes.
allowed them to survive.
The concern is that global climate change today is too rapid, so plants and animals may not be able to survive.
What if we had some living things on Earth that would remove carbon dioxide
from the atmosphere?
What if we had lots of these organisms living all over the Earth?
We Do ! They are called PLANTS.
Plants use CO2 to make sugars
during the process of photosynthesis.
Deforestation is the change of forest land to non-forest land such as;
Deforestation = Cutting down trees
Less trees = Less Photosynthesis
Less Photosynthesis means less CO2
being removed from the atmosphere.
Plus, the burning of trees after
deforestation to clear land in the tropics
adds about 20% of the total excess CO2
into the atmosphere.
The other 80% of excess CO2
is from burning fossil fuels.
Reduce deforestation, particularly in areas like the tropics, NW and SE United States, Canada and Siberia.
Since fossil fuels power industry and
economic growth it will not be easy.
It will require strong individual commitment & acceptance of major lifestyle changes.
need to take the greatest responsibility.
than the TOTAL populations of
Central America, South America,
Africa, India and China.
That is almost 4 billion people
versus only about 300 million
people in the U. S. !
reducing their use of fossil fuels
by conserving energy and developing alternative energy sources
like wind, solar,