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Geology 1001/1101 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Geology 1001/1101
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  1. Geology 1001/1101 Sec 003 Chris Paola Class 13: energy

  2. Key ideas about energy • Energy use is linked fundamentally to population, population density, and GDP • Total world energy consumption, now and projected • Geology-related energy sources

  3. Geology & energy • ~85% of current energy use is from fossil fuels: oil, gas (hydrocarbons) and coal • All fossil fuel energy is fossil solar energy • All fossil fuel energy is linked to life and thus to carbon • Are we running out of hydrocarbons? The “peak oil” debate • Nuclear energy • Geothermal energy

  4. Key points • How hydrocarbons form • Measuring the reserves, oil field sizes • Definitions: oil and gas units, discoveries, proven reserves, ultimate recoverable reserves • “Unconventional” hydrocarbons: shale gas, shale oil, tar sands • A little about coal

  5. Energy and power • Energy (work) • Joules • BTUs: 1 BTU = 1055 J • Quad = 1015 BTU = 1.055x1018 J (1.055 ExaJ) • Kilowatt-hour: 1 KWH = 3600000 J • Calorie (food): 1 Cal = 4187 J • Power: energy per time (energy rate) • 1 Joule/sec = 1 Watt • 1 HP = 746 Watt • US energy consumption (power), per capita: 11.4 kW (11,400 Watt)

  6. Energy and power • Energy (work) • 1 gallon [U.S.] of automotive gasoline = 131.8 Mjoule • 1 gallon [U.S.] of automotive gasoline = 31470 Calorie [nutritional] • Kilowatt-hour: 1 KWH = 3600000 J • Calorie (food): 1 Cal = 4187 J • Power: energy per time (energy rate) • 1 Joule/sec = 1 Watt • 1 HP = 746 Watt • US energy consumption (power), per capita: 11.4 kW (11,400 Watt)

  7. Energy equivalents • 1 Quad = 1015 BTU = 1.055 x 1018 J = • 8 x 109 Gallons (US) of gasoline • 172 x 106 Barrels of oil • 293 x 109 Kilowatt-hours (kWh) • 36 x 106 Tonnes of coal • 970 x 109 cubic feet of natural gas (~1 TCF) • 6 x 109 UK gallons of diesel oil • 25 x 106 Tonnes of oil • solar input at surface: 168 W/m2 x 106 x 510,065,600 km2 x 3.1x107 sec = 2.66 x 106 EJ per year

  8. Energy per person • Our per-person average consumption: 11.4 kW (11,400 Watt) • In one year: 3.59 x 105 MJ = 359,000 MJ (mega joules) = • 59 barrels of oil OR • 332,000 cubic feet of natural gas OR • 15 tonnes of coal OR • 67.9 m2 of sunlight (at 100% conversion)

  9. World energy consumption 2008 total world energy consumption, per year: 474×1018 J (474 EJ or 449 Quad) 80-90% derived from the combustion of fossil fuels Oil equivalent: 77 x 109 (billion) barrels (Bbbl) Actual world annual, oil only: 31 x 109 (billion) barrels (Bbbl)

  10. Total world energy consumption

  11. Where in the world was oil first produced for human consumption? Texas? Middle east? California? Caucasus?

  12. The Goal - ‘Black Gold’ Light Texas Crude Palo Pinto Field North Texas Heavy Texas Crude Humble Oil Field Southwest Texas Source: J. Armentrout, AAPG

  13. What is Petroleum? • Petroleum: a natural yellow-to-black flammable liquid hydrocarbon found beneath the earth’s surface • Hydrocarbon: an organic compound made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms Source: J. Armentrout, AAPG

  14. Petroleum Products A Barrel of Crude Oil Provides: Gasoline - 19.5 gallons One Barrel = 42 gallons Fuel Oil - 9.2 gallons Jet Fuel - 4.1 gallons Asphalt - 2.3 gallons Kerosene - 0.2 gallons Lubricants - 0.5 gallons Petrochemicals, other products - 6.2 gallons American Petroleum Institute, 1999 Source: J. Armentrout, AAPG

  15. Projected W orld Energy Supplies Projected W orld Energy Supplies Careers in Oil & Gas Remain Important Hydroelectric Hydroelectric 1993 100 100 100 BILLION Solar , W ind BARRELS Geothermal New Technologies 80 80 World Energy Demand Billion Billion Barrels Barrels Nuclear Electric Coal Coal of Oil of Oil 60 60 Equivalent Equivalent per Y ear per Y ear Natural Natural (GBOE) (GBOE) Gas Gas 40 40 Decreasing Fossil Fuels Crude Oil Crude Oil 20 20 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020 2040 2060 2080 3000 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020 2040 2060 2080 3000 024839-2 after Edwards, 24929 AAPG 8/97 Source: J. Armentrout, AAPG

  16. Global Oil and Gas Fields Global Exploration Gas Oil Source: J. Armentrout, AAPG

  17. US HydrocarbonOccurrenceLargest 25 Oil Fieldsby Ultimate Recovery Source: J. Armentrout, AAPG

  18. Erosion Deposition

  19. Hydrocarbon formation

  20. Hydrocarbon formation

  21. Hydrocarbon formation

  22. Petroleum System Processes Accumulation Source Rock Source: J. Armentrout, AAPG

  23. Petroleum System Processes • Generation -Burial of source rock to temperature and pressure regime sufficient to convert organic matter into hydrocarbon • Migration - Movement of hydrocarbon out of the source rock toward and into a trap • Accumulation - A volume of hydrocarbon migrating into a trap faster than the trap leaks resulting in an accumulation • Preservation - Hydrocarbon remains in reservoir and is not altered by biodegradation or “water-washing” • Timing - Trap forms before and during hydrocarbon migrating Source: J. Armentrout, AAPG

  24. A hydrocarbon “trap”: anticline Petroleum Accumulates in Structural Closure Gas Oil Water Source: J. Armentrout, AAPG

  25. More hydrocarbon traps

  26. 3D Seismic Image - Submarine Fan New Tools Better Data Improved Understanding 1 Confined Flow Hummocky Channel Levee 1 2 2 Lobate Mound Less Confined Flow 3 3 Sheet-Form Fan Armentrout et al., 1996

  27. Hydrocarbons: drilling

  28. Where in the world was oil first produced for human consumption? China (349) Pennsylvania (1859)

  29. Are we running out of oil?

  30. Who was M. King Hubbert and what is “Hubbert’s Peak”? Hubbert the person… …Hubbert the icon

  31. Hubbert’s prediction

  32. Source: J. LaHerrere, Oil & Gas Journal, 2000

  33. From Steve Gorelick, Stanford Univ.

  34. From Steve Gorelick, Stanford Univ.

  35. Resources have limits, but is the limit quantifiable? From Steve Gorelick, Stanford Univ.

  36. From Steve Gorelick, Stanford Univ.

  37. From Steve Gorelick, Stanford Univ.

  38. From Steve Gorelick, Stanford Univ.