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Geology 1001/1101. Sec 003 Chris Paola Class 13: energy. Key ideas about energy. Energy use is linked fundamentally to population, population density, and GDP Total world energy consumption, now and projected Geology-related energy sources. Geology & energy.

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slide1

Geology 1001/1101

Sec 003 Chris Paola

Class 13: energy

key ideas about energy
Key ideas about energy
  • Energy use is linked fundamentally to population, population density, and GDP
  • Total world energy consumption, now and projected
  • Geology-related energy sources
geology energy
Geology & energy
  • ~85% of current energy use is from fossil fuels: oil, gas (hydrocarbons) and coal
  • All fossil fuel energy is fossil solar energy
  • All fossil fuel energy is linked to life and thus to carbon
  • Are we running out of hydrocarbons? The “peak oil” debate
  • Nuclear energy
  • Geothermal energy
key points
Key points
  • How hydrocarbons form
  • Measuring the reserves, oil field sizes
  • Definitions: oil and gas units, discoveries, proven reserves, ultimate recoverable reserves
  • “Unconventional” hydrocarbons: shale gas, shale oil, tar sands
  • A little about coal
energy and power
Energy and power
  • Energy (work)
    • Joules
    • BTUs: 1 BTU = 1055 J
    • Quad = 1015 BTU = 1.055x1018 J (1.055 ExaJ)
    • Kilowatt-hour: 1 KWH = 3600000 J
    • Calorie (food): 1 Cal = 4187 J
  • Power: energy per time (energy rate)
    • 1 Joule/sec = 1 Watt
    • 1 HP = 746 Watt
  • US energy consumption (power), per capita: 11.4 kW (11,400 Watt)
energy and power1
Energy and power
  • Energy (work)
    • 1 gallon [U.S.] of automotive gasoline = 131.8 Mjoule
    • 1 gallon [U.S.] of automotive gasoline = 31470 Calorie [nutritional]
    • Kilowatt-hour: 1 KWH = 3600000 J
    • Calorie (food): 1 Cal = 4187 J
  • Power: energy per time (energy rate)
    • 1 Joule/sec = 1 Watt
    • 1 HP = 746 Watt
  • US energy consumption (power), per capita: 11.4 kW (11,400 Watt)
energy equivalents
Energy equivalents
  • 1 Quad = 1015 BTU = 1.055 x 1018 J =
    • 8 x 109 Gallons (US) of gasoline
    • 172 x 106 Barrels of oil
    • 293 x 109 Kilowatt-hours (kWh)
    • 36 x 106 Tonnes of coal
    • 970 x 109 cubic feet of natural gas (~1 TCF)
    • 6 x 109 UK gallons of diesel oil
    • 25 x 106 Tonnes of oil
  • solar input at surface: 168 W/m2 x 106 x 510,065,600 km2 x 3.1x107 sec = 2.66 x 106 EJ per year
energy per person
Energy per person
  • Our per-person average consumption: 11.4 kW (11,400 Watt)
  • In one year: 3.59 x 105 MJ = 359,000 MJ (mega joules) =
    • 59 barrels of oil OR
    • 332,000 cubic feet of natural gas OR
    • 15 tonnes of coal OR
    • 67.9 m2 of sunlight (at 100% conversion)
world energy consumption
World energy consumption

2008 total world energy consumption, per year:

474×1018 J (474 EJ or 449 Quad)

80-90% derived from the combustion of fossil fuels

Oil equivalent: 77 x 109 (billion) barrels (Bbbl)

Actual world annual, oil only: 31 x 109 (billion) barrels (Bbbl)

where in the world was oil first produced for human consumption
Where in the world was oil first produced for human consumption?

Texas?

Middle east?

California?

Caucasus?

slide18

The Goal - ‘Black Gold’

Light Texas Crude

Palo Pinto Field

North Texas

Heavy Texas Crude

Humble Oil Field

Southwest Texas

Source: J. Armentrout, AAPG

slide19

What is Petroleum?

  • Petroleum: a natural yellow-to-black flammable liquid hydrocarbon found beneath the earth’s surface
  • Hydrocarbon: an organic compound made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms

Source: J. Armentrout, AAPG

slide20

Petroleum Products

A Barrel of Crude Oil Provides:

Gasoline - 19.5 gallons

One Barrel =

42 gallons

Fuel Oil - 9.2 gallons

Jet Fuel - 4.1 gallons

Asphalt - 2.3 gallons

Kerosene - 0.2 gallons

Lubricants - 0.5 gallons

Petrochemicals,

other products - 6.2 gallons

American Petroleum Institute, 1999

Source: J. Armentrout, AAPG

slide21

Projected W

orld Energy Supplies

Projected W

orld Energy Supplies

Careers in

Oil & Gas

Remain Important

Hydroelectric

Hydroelectric

1993

100

100

100 BILLION

Solar

, W

ind

BARRELS

Geothermal

New Technologies

80

80

World Energy Demand

Billion

Billion

Barrels

Barrels

Nuclear Electric

Coal

Coal

of Oil

of Oil

60

60

Equivalent

Equivalent

per

Y

ear

per

Y

ear

Natural

Natural

(GBOE)

(GBOE)

Gas

Gas

40

40

Decreasing

Fossil Fuels

Crude Oil

Crude Oil

20

20

1900

1920

1940

1960

1980

2000

2020

2040

2060

2080

3000

1900

1920

1940

1960

1980

2000

2020

2040

2060

2080

3000

024839-2

after Edwards,

24929

AAPG 8/97

Source: J. Armentrout, AAPG

slide22

Global Oil and Gas Fields

Global Exploration

Gas

Oil

Source: J. Armentrout, AAPG

slide24

Erosion

Deposition

slide31

Petroleum System Processes

Accumulation

Source Rock

Source: J. Armentrout, AAPG

slide32

Petroleum System Processes

  • Generation -Burial of source rock to temperature and pressure regime sufficient to convert organic matter into hydrocarbon
  • Migration - Movement of hydrocarbon out of the source rock toward and into a trap
  • Accumulation - A volume of hydrocarbon migrating into a trap faster than the trap leaks resulting in an accumulation
  • Preservation - Hydrocarbon remains in reservoir and is not altered by biodegradation or “water-washing”
  • Timing - Trap forms before and during hydrocarbon migrating

Source: J. Armentrout, AAPG

slide33

A hydrocarbon “trap”: anticline

Petroleum Accumulates in Structural Closure

Gas

Oil

Water

Source: J. Armentrout, AAPG

slide35

3D Seismic Image - Submarine Fan

New Tools Better Data Improved Understanding

1

Confined Flow

Hummocky Channel Levee

1

2

2

Lobate Mound

Less Confined Flow

3

3

Sheet-Form Fan

Armentrout et al., 1996

where in the world was oil first produced for human consumption1
Where in the world was oil first produced for human consumption?

China (349)

Pennsylvania (1859)

who was m king hubbert and what is hubbert s peak
Who was M. King Hubbert and what is “Hubbert’s Peak”?

Hubbert the person… …Hubbert the icon

slide56

Note: we have used ~ 1 Trillion bbl so far

From Steve Gorelick, Stanford Univ.

tar sand
Tar sand

Athabaska sands, Alberta

tar sand reserve 3 6 x 10 9 trillion barrels in canada and venezuela alone
Tar sand reserve: 3.6 x 109 (trillion) barrels in Canada and Venezuela alone

For comparison:

Current world total energy consumption in oil equivalent: 77 billion bbl

Conventional oil reserves: 1.75 trillion bbl

shale gas
Shale gas

Gas-bearing shale, Alberta

shale gas reserve 616 x 10 9 trillion cubic feet tcf in us alone
Shale gas reserve: 616 x 109 (trillion) cubic feet (TCF) in US alone

For comparison:

Current world total energy consumption in gas equivalent: 77 billion bbl

Conventional gas reserves: 6300 TCF

coal reserves
Coal reserves
  • Estimated total reserve: 843 Gton
  • Current usage: 6.4 Gton/yr