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LIMITED RESOURCES: SEARCH FOR NEW & RENEWABLE ENERGY PowerPoint Presentation
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LIMITED RESOURCES: SEARCH FOR NEW & RENEWABLE ENERGY

LIMITED RESOURCES: SEARCH FOR NEW & RENEWABLE ENERGY

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LIMITED RESOURCES: SEARCH FOR NEW & RENEWABLE ENERGY

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  1. LIMITED RESOURCES: SEARCH FOR NEW & RENEWABLE ENERGY Comenius University Lectures, Bratislava Net Energy Analyses G. TOTH ENERGY ECONOMICS

  2. NEW & RENEWABLE ENERGY Comenius University Lectures, Bratislava NEW & RENEWABLE ENERGY GLOBAL ISSUES. ENERGY BASICS SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY ENERGY & REGULATIONS NEW AND RENEWABLE ENERGY SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGE- MENT ENERGY ECONOMICS ENERGY & SOCIETY

  3. NEW & RENEWABLE ENERGY Comenius University Lectures, Bratislava GLOBAL ISSUES. ENERGY BASICS SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY ENERGY & REGULATIONS NEW AND RENEWABLE ENERGY SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGE- MENT ENERGY ECONOMICS ENERGY & SOCIETY

  4. NEW & RENEWABLE ENERGY Comenius University Lectures, Bratislava GLOBAL ISSUES ENERGY BASICS GLOBAL ISSUES. ENERGY BASICS SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY ENERGY & REGULATIONS NEW AND RENEWABLE ENERGY SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGE- MENT ENERGY ECONOMICS ENERGY & SOCIETY

  5. NEW & RENEWABLE ENERGY Comenius University Lectures, Bratislava GLOBAL ISSUES. ENERGY BASICS SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY ENERGY & REGULATIONS NEW AND RENEWABLE ENERGY SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGE- MENT ENERGY ECONOMICS ENERGY & SOCIETY

  6. NEW & RENEWABLE ENERGY Comenius University Lectures, Bratislava GLOBAL ISSUES. ENERGY BASICS SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY ENERGY & REGULATIONS NEW AND RENEWABLE ENERGY ENERGY ECONOMICS SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGE- MENT ENERGY ECONOMICS ENERGY & SOCIETY

  7. NEW & RENEWABLE ENERGY Comenius University Lectures, Bratislava GLOBAL ISSUES. ENERGY BASICS SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY ENERGY & REGULATIONS NEW AND RENEWABLE ENERGY SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGE- MENT ENERGY ECONOMICS ENERGY & SOCIETY ENERGY & SOCIETY

  8. NEW & RENEWABLE ENERGY Comenius University Lectures, Bratislava GLOBAL ISSUES. ENERGY BASICS SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY ENERGY & REGULATIONS NEW AND RENEWABLE ENERGY SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGE- MENT ENERGY ECONOMICS ENERGY & SOCIETY

  9. NEW & RENEWABLE ENERGY Comenius University Lectures, Bratislava GLOBAL ISSUES. ENERGY BASICS ENERGY & REGULATIONS SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY ENERGY & REGULATIONS NEW AND RENEWABLE ENERGY SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGE- MENT ENERGY ECONOMICS ENERGY & SOCIETY

  10. Schylla and Charybdis

  11. Schylla and Charybdis • Scylla and Charybdis are two sea monsters of Greek mythology situated on opposite sides of a narrow channel of water. • The phrase "between Scylla and Charybdis" has come to mean being in a state where one is between two dangers and moving away from one will cause you to be in danger from the other.

  12. ParallelismSchylla and Charybdis – Alternative Energy • Alternative Energy • Wind energy • Solar energy • Water energy • Bioenergy • Fossil Energy • Coal • Natural Gas • Oil • „Darkgreen” Energy • „Bioenergy” from • fossil energy • The importance of the harmony with the environment!

  13. Energy balance What is energy balance? Energy balance is a systematic presentation of energy flows and transformations in a system. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only modified in form!

  14. Example: Energy balance I. Source: Bio-Genezis Ltd.

  15. Example: Energy balanceTechnical Fermentation Biogas input output

  16. Example: Energy balance II. The energy balance is POSITIVE because: Total energy output of the process: 100% Useful energy output of the process: 100% -10% = 90% Energy input: ∑ 35% 5% Electric + 30% Heat Useful energy output > Energy input 90% > 35% Energy output – Energy input – Energy Loss = Energy balance 100% – ( 5% + 30% ) – 10% = +55%

  17. What is the pitfall of the energy balance? I. Transportation ?

  18. The complete process Energy for transportation

  19. The complete energy balance The complete energy balance is NEGATIVE: Total energy output of the process: 100% Useful energy output of the process: 100% -10 % =90% Energy input: ∑ 95% 60% Transportation + 5% Electric + 30% Heat Useful energy output < Energy input 90% < 95% Energy output – Energy input – Energy Loss = Energy balance 100% – ( 60% + 5% + 30% ) – 10% = -5%

  20. What is the pitfall of the energy balance? II. The complete energy balance is POSITIVE: Total energy output of the process: 100% (Useful energy output of the process: 100% - 10 % = 90%) Energy input: ∑ 95% 60% Transportation + 5% Electric + 30% Heat Total energy output < Energy input 100% < 95% Energy output – Energy input = Energy balance 100% – ( 60% + 5% + 30% ) = +5%

  21. Is this really the complete process to produce biogas? What is the pitfall of the energy balance? III. Energy for transportation

  22. The complete process to produce biogas: New / renewable energy generation using fossil energy?! I. Energy to grow basic materials Energy fortransportation

  23. New / renewable energy generation using fossil energy?! II. Some input process uses fossil fuel: diesel oil

  24. Income saleable outputs (electric power, heat …) Cost loss transportation every input (energy, basic materials) unsaleable outputs Energy balanceEconomical aspect

  25. Direct – indirect cost • Direct cost: • because of the production • the company pays • example: energy, basic material, wage • Indirect cost: • because of the production • society pays • externals

  26. Direct costs example ethanol production from corn USA average 2007: • Energy cost: 10 $ cent / liter • Chemical and enzyme costs: 6 $ cent / liter • Maize net cost: 22 $ cent / liter • Other costs 2 $ cent / liter ∑ 40 $ cent / liter Source: Jozsef Popp [2007]

  27. Indirect costs example bioethanol production from corn USA bioethanol production 2006 ≈ 5 billion gallon Indirect costs: Cost of tax allowance (2006) ≈ $ 2,5 billion Environment costs (CO2 , NOx) $ ? billion Who has paid the indirect costs? Sociality (through taxes to the governments)

  28. LIMITED RESOURCES: SEARCH FOR NEW & RENEWABLE ENERGY Comenius University Lectures, Bratislava Net Energy Analyses Part II G. TOTH ENERGY ECONOMICS

  29. NEW & RENEWABLE ENERGY Comenius University Lectures, Bratislava GLOBAL ISSUES. ENERGY BASICS SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY ENERGY & REGULATIONS NEW AND RENEWABLE ENERGY SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGE- MENT ENERGY ECONOMICS ENERGY & SOCIETY

  30. NEW & RENEWABLE ENERGY Comenius University Lectures, Bratislava GLOBAL ISSUES. ENERGY BASICS SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY ENERGY & REGULATIONS NEW AND RENEWABLE ENERGY ENERGY ECONOMICS SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGE- MENT ENERGY ECONOMICS ENERGY & SOCIETY

  31. Sector analysis

  32. Sector analysis Solar energy I. • There is no (or minimal) necessary energy input for functioning • Calculable energy production • Very high investment costs • It needs a big producing area • Minimal need for human work

  33. Sector analysisSolar energy II. • current shortage of silicon (the principal raw material of solar cells) • the cumulated total of installed European capacity is 1791.7 MWp • grid-connected applications with 94.4% of installed capacity

  34. Installed photovoltaic capacities in the European Union (in MWp)

  35. Sector analysisWindenergy advantages - disadvantages • There is no necessary energy input for functioning • It produces virtually no pollution of air, water or soil • Installing wind turbines is relatively quick • Not relatively high investment costs • Minimal need forspace • The price of wind power is not affected by fuel price increases or supply disruptions But • Incalculable energy production • Noise

  36. Wind energy in the EU I. Source: Hungarian Wind Energy Association

  37. Wind power installed in the European Union at the end of 2005 (in MW)

  38. Problems of wind energy • too slow extension of the electrical power grid • indefinite purchase price of energy(in many countries) • not enough energy storing capacity

  39. Investments to the wind energy • Question: Is it profitable? Is the project safe? • Problem: Receiving price of the electricity • price level • receiving period

  40. Sector analysis Geothermal energy • There is minimal necessary energy input for functioning • High investment costs • Necessary to pump back (in many countries) → causes higher costs!!! • It needs high geothermal gradient

  41. Heating with geothermal energy in the EU

  42. Situation of high temperature geothermal energy (electricity production)in 2004 and 2005

  43. Sector analysisWater energy • The sector is extremely dependent on geography • There is no necessary energy input for functioning • Really high investment costs • It needs much space → causes in environment changes

  44. Types of biomass • Consistent biomass: - firewood - energy grass - forestry cut offs • Biofuel: - biodiesel - bioetanol • Biogas

  45. Consistent biomass • High input energy: - cutting - transportation - loading • Technical problem with energy grass (too high Si matter)

  46. Biofuel • High input energy: • agricultural work (reaping, plowing costs) • transportation, loading • preparing costs • The whole process employs high number of people

  47. Ethanol producing capacity of the word [billion liter]

  48. Biodiesel producing capacity of the word [billion liter]

  49. Secondary products of the biofuel 4,65 kg by-product is issued at the process of producing 1kg of bioethanol! It needs a demand not only for the biofluel but also for the secondary products!

  50. Price influence biofuel – secondary product = fix parameter