Non-renewable Energy Chapter 17
Renewable Vs. Nonrenewable • Renewable Resources • Replaceable during a human lifetime. • EX: _____________________________ • Nonrenewable Resources • Replaceable, but over millions of years. • EX:______________________________
Energy Concepts • Energy • “The ability to do ___________”. • Energy is neither created or destroyed.
Renewable Energy Hydroelectric Wind Solar Biofuels Hydrogen cell Geothermal Nonrenewable Energy Oil Coal Natural gas Energy Resources
Worldwide Energy Sources • Using prior knowledge or educated guesses, divide a circle (pie) into sections that best represent the percentage that each of the following energy sources contributes to the world’s supply. • Fossil fuel power, nuclear power, hydroelectric power, wind power and solar power
Fossil Fuels • Chemical energy sources that were formed over millions of years from the remains of living plants & animals. • Coal (solid) • Oil (liquid) • Natural gas (gas)
Oil (& Natural Gas) Formation • Ancient _____________________died & quickly accumulated. • Anaerobic (lacking oxygen) conditions prevented complete decomposition. • Increased heat & pressure “cooked” living remains into oil & natural gas.
Coal Formation • Ancient swamp _________ died & quickly accumulated. • __________ (lacking oxygen) conditions prevented complete decomposition. • Increased ________ & _______ “cooked” plant remains into coal. • Eastern US: plants are from 300-320 million years ago • Wyoming: plants are from 40-100 mya
Which fuel do I use? • What is the purpose? • Which is most suitable?
What is Crude Oil? • Petroleum (crude oil) • Thick, black oil as it comes out of the ground • Most valuable natural resource (?) • Gasoline, heating oil, jet fuel, grease, wax, asphalt, plastics…
Oil (Petroleum) Facts • Crude Oil (petroleum) is oil pumped from the ground. • Must be refined into usable products (boiled off at various temperatures) • Discovered in 1859 in Pennsylvania! • Known reserves expected to last less than 50 years! • Current price per barrel: $52
Where are Gas & Oil found? • Oil Reserves in… • United States • Middle East • Venezuela • North Sea • Siberia • Nigeria
2. Oil Refining • Refinery • Heat crude oil • Lowest boiling point components are collected first • Limited refineries in the world. • Affects supplies, which affects prices.
What is petroleum used for? • Fuel - transportation, generating electricity • Making products - plastic, fleece, ink, floor wax, soap, carpet, nail polish, aspirin, etc. (over 6,000 products)
Advantages to using oil • Most bang for the buck… • Gives the most energy with the least amount of wasted energy
Environmental Concerns • Pollution - many pollutants created when burned which leads to smog and acid rain • Global Warming - releases CO2 when burned • Oil Spills - damage to plants and animals
4. Oil Reserves Are Low • Economically depleted • When 80% of a resource has been used • Cost to extract remaining supply is more expensive than its sale price. • Oil • At current usage • 44 years to economic depletion! (1998) • How much is undiscovered? • Should we conserve?
OPEC • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries • Set up in 1960 so developing countries would get a fair price for the resource. • Control 67% of world’s oil • Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, UAE, Algeria, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, and Venezuela
Natural Gas • Underground gas • Mostly methane CH4 (50% - 90%)
Where is it found? • In or near oil wells
What is it used for? • Fuel for transportation • Produces electricity
Advantages • Burns cleaner than oil, so produces less pollutants
What is coal? • Readily combustible rock • The longer it’s been forming the higher the grade • Higher grade burns cleaner
Four (4) Grades of Coal • Peat • Lignite • Bituminous • Anthracite
Grades of Coal Peat Earliest stage in coal formation Lignite (brown coal) Low quality = low energy Bituminous (soft coal) Most common Anthracite (hard coal) Highest carbon = highest energy www.uvawise.edu/philosophy/Hist%20295/ Powerpoint%5CCoal.ppt
Carbon content increases Water decreases Burns hotter & cleaner!
Coal Facts • Most abundant fossil fuel • 400 year supply • 66% of known coal is located in the U.S. • U.S. is 2nd largest consumer of coal • China is 1st! • Most environmentally damaging fossil fuel.
Where is it found? • Underground • All over the world • Most abundant in Asia and North America
Surface Mining • for coal that is buried less than 200 feet deep • - cheaper
Underground Mining • for coal buried 200-1,000 ft. deep
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bk-jrbCi7Sc&feature=related Tour through a coal mine http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fkHfnp2czZQ Centralia, PA
What is it used for? • Burned to generate electricity • ½ of electricity in US is from coal • Making steel • used to smelt iron ore into iron
Advantages • Cheap • Needs little refining
Environmental Concerns • Surface mining – removes the top of an entire mountain • Toxic chemicals – (mercury) leach from waste rock into nearby streams • Pollution, Acid Rain, & Global Warming – depends on the grade of the coal
Electricity • The movement of electrons. • Created by moving a conducting material (copper wire) through a magnetic field.
Energy is needed to make electricity • Where does the supply of electrons come from? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HPyClNtyFOs
Large Scale Electricity Production • Coal fired power plants • Burn coal to make heat. • Heat boils water to make steam. • High pressured steam turns a turbine. • Moving turbine turns the generator (magnets and wires). • The magnet creates a flow of electrons = Electricity!