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Nonrenewable Energy Resources. G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 14 th Edition Chapter 17. Key Concepts. Available energy alternatives. Oil resources. Natural gas resources. Coal resources. Nuclear fission and fusion . Section 1: Evaluating Energy Resources.

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nonrenewable energy resources
Nonrenewable Energy Resources

G. Tyler Miller’s

Living in the Environment

14th Edition

Chapter 17

key concepts
Key Concepts
  • Available energy alternatives
  • Oil resources
  • Natural gas resources
  • Coal resources
  • Nuclear fission and fusion
section 1 evaluating energy resources
Section 1: Evaluating Energy Resources

What types of energy do we use?

What types of commercial energy does the world depend on?

What is the energy future of the United States?

How can we evaluate which energy resources to use?

What is “net energy?”

what type of energy do we use
What type of energy do we use?

About 99% of the energy that heats the earth and our homes comes from the sun, and the remaining 1% comes mostly from fossil fuels. (old solar energy)

  • Without sun -2400C
what type of energy do we use5
What type of energy do we use?

Sun’s Energy

  • Nuclear Fusion
  • 93 million miles away
  • “Average” Star
  • 99% Hydrogen
evaluating energy resources
Evaluating Energy Resources

Non-renewable energy:

  • 84% of world commercial energy (78% from fossil fuels, 6% nuclear)
  • Oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear
evaluating energy resources7
Evaluating Energy Resources

Renewable Energy Sources:

  • 16% of world’s commercial energy resources.
  • 10% biomass, 5% hydro, and 1% combo of geothermal, wind and solar.
evaluating energy resources10
Evaluating Energy Resources

Future Energy Availability: the U.S. is the world’s largest energy user.

  • In 2004, 4.6% of world population, yet 24% of world’s energy consumption
future energy in u s
Future Energy in U.S.

U.S. debate: should we continue our dependence on oil and coal or shift to natural gas, hydrogen, solar cells, and wind.

  • Political, Economic, Energy Companies, Societal Debate
evaluating energy choices
Evaluating Energy Choices
  • Costs
  • Environmental Impacts
  • Availability in near future and long term
  • Governmental Incentives
  • National and Global Security
  • Terrorism
what is net energy
What is Net Energy?

NET ENEGY: is the amount of high-quality usable energy available from a resource after subtracting out what is needed to make it usable.

  • Second law of thermodynamics: some energy will be wasted and degraded.
review section 1
Review Section 1

What types of energy do we use?

What types of commercial energy does the world depend on?

What is the energy future of the United States?

How can we evaluate which energy resources to use?

What is “net energy?”

section 2 oil key ideas
Section 2: Oil Key Ideas

What is crude oil? How does crude oil turn into usable products?

Where does oil come from? Who has oil?

How is oil used?

What are problems associated with oil usage?

How much longer will we have oil?

oil rules what is crude oil
Oil Rules!!! What is crude oil?

Petroleum, or crude oil is a thick, gooey liquid consisting of many combustible hydrocarbons.

  • Formed over millions of year from decaying organic materials buried under the seafloor and subjected to extreme temperatures and pressure.
oil rules what is crude oil22
Oil Rules!!! What is crude oil?

Crude oil and natural gas often found together in deep deposits in pores and cracks.

  • Found using sophisticated equipment.
  • Usually only 30-35% is extractable
  • Higher prices mean more can be extracted.
oil rules transportation
Oil Rules!!! Transportation

How crude oil is transported:

  • Pipelines
  • Trucks
  • Oil Tankers
slide24

Refining crude oil. Based upon their boiling points, components are removed in giant distillation column.

In US refining accounts for 8% of our energy consumption

oil who has it
Oil, Who Has It?

Eleven OPEC countries contain 78% of world’s proven oil reserves

Oil is the world’s

largest business.

Saudi Arabia 25%

Canada 15%

Iraq 11%, UAE 9.3%

oil who has it27
Oil, Who Has It?

U.S.:

  • Uses 26%
  • Produces 2.9%
  • Import 60% (36% in 1973)

2003 $99 billion import bill.

2/3 for transportation

oil who has it30
Oil, Who Has It?

ANWR:

Best Estimates:

  • Would meet world’ energy demands for 1-5 months
  • Would meet US energy needs for 7-24 months.

Saudi Arabia:

  • Could only supply world for about 10 years.
slide31
Oil
  • Petroleum (crude oil)
  • Recovery
  • Refining
  • Transporting

Fig. 17-8 p. 356

conventional oil advantages
Conventional Oil: Advantages

Relatively low cost

  • High net energy yield
  • Efficient distribution system
conventional oil disadvantages
Conventional Oil: Disadvantages

Running out

  • Low prices encourage waste
  • Air pollution and Greenhouse gases
  • Water pollution
  • World Politics and Trade Imbalances
oil what is left
Oil, What Is Left?

Most energy expert believe there are about 1,050 billion barrels left.

Peak Production This Decade

Rising Demand, Dwindling Supply = Higher Prices

oil what is left39
Oil, What Is Left?

Ways of extending oil supplies:

  • Increase CAFÉ
  • Find new reserves
  • Taxing
  • Conservation
  • Increased use of other sources.
arctic national wildlife refuge controversy trade offs
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Controversy: Trade-offs

Would create jobs

  • Oil resources are uncertain
  • Uncertain environmental impacts
  • Drilling controversies
oil shale and tar sands
Oil Shale and Tar Sands
  • Oil shale
  • Tar sand
oil review
Oil Review

What is crude oil? How does crude oil turn into usable products?

Where does oil come from? Who has oil?

How is oil used?

What are problems associated with oil usage?

How much longer will we have oil?

natural gas key ideas
Natural Gas Key Ideas

What is natural gas? Where is it found?

How is natural gas used?

Who has the world's natural gas supplies?

What is the future for natural gas?

what is natural gas
What is natural gas?

Mainly methane CH4

Also

  • Ethane C2H6
  • Propane C3H8
  • Butane C4H10

Formed like oil from buried animals and plants millions of years ago.

where is it found
Where is it found?

Deposits usually found above oil deposits.

In past was seen as unwanted waste and burnt off.

who has natural gas
Who has natural gas?

Russia (31%) and Iran (15%) have almost ½ of world’s reserves.

Reserves could last 62-125 years worldwide.

Geologist expect to find more.

u s natural gas
U.S. Natural Gas

U.S. supplies should last 55-80 years depending upon demand.

Supplies have been declining for years.

Canada???

how is it used
How is it used?
  • 53% of heat in U.S. homes
  • 16% of electricity and growing quickly
  • Hot water heaters
  • Can be used in vehicles
advantages of gas
Advantages of Gas
  • Cleaner burning than coal or oil.
  • Emits far fewer CO2 per energy units
  • More efficient energy producer and plants are cheaper to build
what is gases future
What is gases future?

Conventional and Unconventional sources may last up to 200 years.

Prices bound to rise

Best transition fuel into solar etc.?

what is lng
What is LNG?

At low temperatures natural gas can be shipped around the world as liquid natural gas.

Requires very low temperatures and building special infrastructure.

natural gas review
Natural Gas Review

What is natural gas? Where is it found?

How is natural gas used?

Who has the world's natural gas supplies?

What is the future for natural gas?

old king coal key ideas
Old King Coal Key Ideas

History of coal use.

What is coal? How is it extracted from the ground?

How is coal used? How long will it last?

What are advantages and disadvantages of using coal?

history of old king coal
History of Old King Coal

After firewood, coal was the major source of energy.

End of 1800s coal is the worlds dominant fuel.

  • Steam Engines
  • Heating
  • Cooking
  • Industry
history of old king coal61
History of Old King Coal

By 1920s, coal provided 80% of US energy.

Powered the industrial revolution

Caused a great deal of air pollution.

what is coal
What is coal?

Coal is a solid fuel formed in several stages from remains of buried plants and animals.

Consists mostly of carbon and trace amounts of sulfur, mercury and radioactive materials.

what is coal63
What is coal?

Anthracite is the most desirable form of coal (98% carbon)

Takes longer to form

More expensive.

how is coal extracted
How is coal extracted?

Surface Mining:

  • Area Strip Mining
  • Contour Strip Mining
  • Mountaintop Removal

Underground Mining

Large environmental impact from different mining techniques.

how is coal used
How is coal used?

Coal provides 51% of current U.S. electricity. (62% worldwide)

Used to make ¾ of worlds steel.

A typical 1,000 Megawatt power plant uses 8,000 tons of coal every day…1 mile long train worth of coal every day.

how is coal used68
How is coal used?

91% of coal in U.S. is used for power production.

Not useful for transportation energy needs.

where in the world is coal found
Where in the world is coal found?

U.S. has 1/4th of the world proven reserves. (16% Russia, 12% China)

U.S. and China are 2 largest users.

U.S. is able to export about 4% a year.

how long will coal last
How long will coal last?

According to USGS…

U.S. reserves could last 300 years at current rate of consumption…or 64 years if consumption grows by 4% a year.

World’s most abundant fossil fuel.

U.S. Energy Projections

coal advantages
Coal Advantages
  • Most abundant fossil fuel.
  • High “Net Energy”
  • Relatively inexpensive.
  • U.S. has plenty of it for a while.
  • Power Plants relatively cheap to build.
coal disadvantages
Coal Disadvantages
  • High environmental impact (air, water, land, acid rain)
  • Global Warming, high CO2 emissions
  • Toxic Mercury and radioactivity
  • Dangerous to mine
coal trade offs
Coal: Trade-offs

“Clean Coal Technology???”

coal review
Coal Review
  • Stages of coal formation
  • Primarily strip-mined
  • Used mostly for generating electricity
  • Enough coal for about 1000 years
  • High environmental impact
  • Coal gasification and liquefaction
coal review76
Coal Review

History of coal use.

What is coal? How is it extracted from the ground?

How is coal used? How long will it last?

What are advantages and disadvantages of using coal?

nuclear energy key ideas
Nuclear Energy Key Ideas

How does a nuclear fission reactor work?

What is the nuclear fuel cycle?

What is the history of nuclear technology? Where is it used today?

What are advantages and disadvantages of using nuclear power?

What are the disposal issues for high-level and low level nuclear waste?

What is the future for nuclear power?

how does a nuclear fission reactor work
How does a nuclear fission reactor work?

Isotopes of uranium and plutonium undergo controlled nuclear fission.

U235 and Pt239

(U contains 92 Protons, how many neutrons???)

Fission Chain Reaction, splitting the nucleus, releasing heat to produce steam

how does a nuclear fission reactor work80
How does a nuclear fission reactor work?

Core Reactor: 35,000 to 70,000 fuel rods

  • Fuel pellets of 97% non-fissionable U238 and 3% fissionable U235
  • Control rods of Boron and Cadmium
  • Coolant: water
  • Containment vessel
how does a nuclear fission reactor work81
How does a nuclear fission reactor work?

“Spent” fuel rods usually stored onsite in huge pools of water

Must be stored safely for 10,000 to 24,000 years

Multiple safety layers at plants.

how does a nuclear fission reactor work82
How does a nuclear fission reactor work?

The heat produced by the splitting of uranium is used to generate electricity by spinning turbines.

Plants must be in continual operation

nuclear energy
Nuclear Energy
  • Fission reactors
  • Uranium-235
  • Potentially dangerous
  • Radioactive wastes
what is the nuclear fuel cycle
What is the nuclear fuel cycle?

Fuel Cycle Includes:

  • Mining uranium
  • Processing fuel “enrichment”
  • Using fuel in reactor
  • Storing highly radioactive waste for thousands of years
what is the nuclear fuel cycle86
What is the nuclear fuel cycle?

After 15-60 years reactors become contaminated with radioactive materials and parts become worn out.

Transporting nuclear waste for storage 10,000 years or more

what is the history of nuclear technology
What is the history of nuclear technology?

Following WW II great interest in showing how atomic age could benefit humankind

Tremendous government subsidies and research

Government paid ¼ of cost of building first reactors.

Government paid insurance

what is the history of nuclear technology89
What is the history of nuclear technology?

1960s and 70s plans for many U.S. plants

1975 – 53 plants operating (9% of U.S. electricity) another 170 plants planned

1978 last plant to be built was ordered – great unease about plants

what is the history of nuclear technology90
What is the history of nuclear technology?

1979 Three-Mile Island, PA

1986 Chernobyl (still a problem today)

Globally plants continue to be built (441 in operation, 23 being built)

where is it used today
Where is it used today?

U.S.

In 2004:

  • 103 in operation
  • 21% of countries electricity (huge plants)

US Energy Information Agency predicts 27% fewer plants in 2020

where is it used today93
Where is it used today?

Globally:

  • 441 plants (32 under construction)
  • 17% of world’s electricity
  • Growing 2.5% yearly

Leading countries:

  • Lithuania 80%
  • France 78%
advantages of nuclear power
Advantages of Nuclear Power
  • Large Fuel Supply
  • Little Air Pollution and CO2 emissions
  • Moderate to low water and land environmental impact
  • Low risk of accidents (multiple safety levels – except in old Soviet reactors)
disadvantages of nuclear power
Disadvantages of Nuclear Power
  • High cost of building and operating plants
  • Possibility of catastrophic accidents
  • No long-term solutions for waste
  • Spreads knowledge of nuclear weapon technology
  • Terrorist Attacks
dealing with nuclear waste
Dealing with Nuclear Waste
  • High- and low-level wastes
  • Terrorist threats
  • Underground burial
  • Disposal in space
  • Burial in ice sheets
  • Dumping into subduction zones
  • Burial in ocean mud
  • Conversion into harmless materials
yucca mountain controversy
Yucca Mountain Controversy

Wastes stored and guarded in one place

Possible long-term groundwater contamination

Security and safety concerns during waste transport to the site

permanent underground disposal of nuclear wastes
Permanent Underground Disposal of Nuclear Wastes

Storage Containers

Fuel rod

Primary canister

Ground Level

Overpack

container

sealed

Personnel

elevator

Unloaded from train

Air shaft

Nuclear waste

shaft

Underground

Buried and capped

Lowered down shaft

Fig. 17-28 p. 373

nuclear alternatives future
Nuclear Alternatives – Future?
  • New reactor designs
  • Breeder nuclear fission reactors
  • Nuclear fusion
nuclear review
Nuclear Review

How does a nuclear fission reactor work?

What is the nuclear fuel cycle?

What is the history of nuclear technology? Where is it used today?

What are advantages and disadvantages of using nuclear power?

What are the disposal issues for high-level and low level nuclear waste?

What is the future for nuclear power?