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Chapter 5 Earth Science

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  1. Energy Resources Chapter 5 Earth Science

  2. Natural Resources • Natural Resource – any natural material that is used by humans. • Ex. Water, petroleum, minerals, forests, and animals. • Most resources are changed and made into products that make people’s lives more comfortable and convenient.

  3. Renewable Resources • Renewable Resources – natural resource that can be replaced at the same rate at which the resource is consumed. • Ex. Wind, Sun, and water (sometimes). • Some resources can become nonrenewable if they are used up too quickly like: • Water • Trees

  4. Nonrenewable Resources • Nonrenewable Resources- a resource that forms at a rate that is much slower than the rate at which it is consumed. • Ex. Coal, Oil, Petroleum. • Because these sources are nonrenewable there is a major need to find sources of energy that are more reliable for the future.

  5. Conserving Natural Resources • Because natural resources carry so much value to humans one should learn to conserve them even if they are considered renewable. • How to conserve Resources:

  6. Ecological Footprint • http://www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/GFN/page/calculators/

  7. RRR • Reduce • Reduce the amount of waste that you create. • Use cloth bags instead of paper/plastic. • Reuse • Reuse products as much as possible before throwing them out. • Ex. Use a towel twice instead of washing it after one use. • Recycle • The process of recovering valuable or useful materials from waste or scrap. • Newspaper, aluminum cans, plastic, and cardboard can all be recycled.

  8. Mining the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth.

  9. Deforestation the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is converted to a non-forest use. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use.

  10. Agriculture (also called farming) is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life.

  11. Overgrazing when plants are exposed to intensive grazing for long periods of time, or without enough recovery time. It can be caused by either livestock in poorly managed agricultural applications, or by overpopulations of native or non-native wild animals.

  12. Urbanization the physical growth of urban areas as a result of global change.

  13. Your Turn! • What do you think the issue is with Urbanization, agriculture, overgrazing, deforestation, and mining?

  14. MAKING NEWS! • In the groups I assign, you will research a topic about a human impact on Earths surface. • Using the information at your station; Video, Posted information, and Text Book, your group will create a 2 minute News Story to present to the class in a live studio recording!

  15. Information you MUST include in your news story.. • A description of the activity you are researching. • Why it occurs. • Most importantly: The impact this activity has on the lithosphere both past and present. • Keep it fun, exciting, and informative! (Why would someone be interested in watching your news report?)

  16. End of Section 5.1

  17. Fossil Fuels • Energy resources – natural resources that humans use to generate energy. • Fossil fuel – a nonrenewable energy resource formed from the remains of organisms that lived long ago • examples include: • Oil • Coal • Natural gas.

  18. Release of Energy • Energy is released from fossil fuels when they are burned. • Ex. Burning of coal in power plant is used to provide electrical energy.

  19. Fossil Fuels • All living things are made up of Carbon. • Yes that means you are too. • Fossil fuels are formed from the remains of plants and animals. • Hydrocarbons – the way carbon is found in the majority of fossil fuels. • A combination of hydrogen and carbon.

  20. Types of Fossil Fuels • Fossil Fuels can be found as: • Solid • Liquid • Gas

  21. Liquid Fossil Fuels • Petroleum – a liquid mixture of complex hydrocarbon compounds; used widely as a fuel source. • Also known as crude oil. • Separated into several kinds of products in refineries.

  22. Liquid Fossil Fuels • Different types of products that petroleum can be separated into: • Gasoline • Jet Fuel • Kerosene • Diesel Fuel • Fuel Oil

  23. Black Gold • Petroleum is often referred to as black gold due to its importance to society. • 40% of the world’s energy comes from petroleum products. • Petroleum products are the main fuel for forms of transportation.

  24. Gaseous Fossil Fuels • Natural gas – a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons located under the surface of the Earth, often near petroleum deposits; used as a fuel. • Used for heating • Generating electricity • Some stoves use natural gas

  25. Advantages of Natural Gases • Advantage of using natural gas: • Using it causes les air pollution than using oil. • Disadvantages • Very flammable • Gas leaks can lead to fires or deadly explosions

  26. Types of Natural Gas • Main components of natural gas: • Methane • CH4 • Other products that can be separated from natural gas include: • Butane • Propane • These products are often used to cook with in camp stoves and outdoor grills.

  27. Solid Fossil Fuels • Coal – a fossil fuel that forms underground from partially decomposed plant material. • Uses: • Heating homes • Transportation in trains and boats. • Coal is no longer used in heating or for transportation purposes. • Generation of electricity. ( Main use today.)

  28. Peat • Peat – is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation. • Used as a fuel source. • Releases large amounts of carbon when burned.

  29. Fossil Fuels in the US

  30. Petroleum and Natural Gas Formation • Microscopic sea organisms die. • The remains settle on the ocean floor. • The remains decay, are buried, and become part of the ocean sediment. • Eventually the sediment becomes rock trapping the remains. • Petroleum and natural gas form this way.

  31. Petroleum and Natural Gas Formation • Eventually over time, the pressure of overlying rocks and sediment allow the fossil fuels to move through the permeable rocks. • Permeable rocks – rocks that allow fluids to move through them.

  32. Petroleum and Natural Gas Formation • Petroleum and natural gas is an ongoing process. • Part of the remains of today’s sea life will become petroleum and natural gas millions of year from now.

  33. Coal Formation - CARBONIZATION • Forms underground from decayed swamp plants over millions of years. • When the plants die, they sink to the bottom of the swamp. • This is the start of the process in which coal is formed.

  34. Coal Formation

  35. How Do We Obtain Fossil Fuels? • Petroleum and Natural Gas • Removed from Earth by drilling wells into rock. • Oil wells exist on land and in the ocean. • In the ocean, large drills are attached to large platforms that are anchored to the ocean floor. • Coal • Obtained by either subsurface mining or surface mining.

  36. Problems with Fossil Fuels • Acid precipitation – precipitation, such as rain sleet or snow that contains a high concentration of acids, often because of the pollution of the atmosphere.

  37. Formation of Acid Rain • Sulfur dioxide is released into the atmosphere when coal is burned without pollution controls. • Sulfur dioxide combines with moisture in the air to produce sulfuric acid. • Sulfuric acid is the cause of acid rain. • Can effect wildlife, plants, buildings, and statues.

  38. How Acid Rain Works

  39. Effects of Acid Rain

  40. Effects of Acid Rain

  41. Effects of Acid Rain

  42. Coal Mining • The mining of coal can also create environmental problems. • Surface mining removes soil in which some plants and animals need for shelter. • Can lower water tables and pollute water supplies. • Coal mines endanger the lives of miners.

  43. Petroleum Problems • Producing, transporting, and using petroleum can cause environmental problems and endanger wildlife. • Ex. Treasure, an oil rig, sank off the coast of South Africa and spilled more than 400 tons of oil. • The oil coated thousands of blackfooted penguins. • Hindering the penguins from swimming and catching fish for food.

  44. Petroleum Problems

  45. Smog • Smog – photochemical haze that forms when sunlight acts on industrial pollutants and burning fuels. • Result of millions of automobiles that burn gasoline. • Due to the Mountains that surround Los Angeles it prevents winds from blowing the pollutants away.

  46. Smog

  47. Smog

  48. End of Section 5.2

  49. Splitting the Atom • Nuclear energy – the energy released by a fission or fusion reaction; the binding energy of the atomic nucleus. • Fission – a process in which the nuclei of radioactive atoms are split into two or more smaller nuclei. • Releases a large amount of energy.