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Chapter 5 Earth Science - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Energy Resources. Chapter 5 Earth Science. Natural Resources. Natural Resource – any natural material that is used by humans. Ex. Water, petroleum, minerals, forests, and animals. Most resources are changed and made into products that make people’s lives more comfortable and convenient.

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natural resources
Natural Resources
  • Natural Resource – any natural material that is used by humans.
    • Ex. Water, petroleum, minerals, forests, and animals.
    • Most resources are changed and made into products that make people’s lives more comfortable and convenient.
renewable resources
Renewable Resources
  • Renewable Resources – natural resource that can be replaced at the same rate at which the resource is consumed.
    • Ex. Wind, Sun, and water (sometimes).
    • Some resources can become nonrenewable if they are used up too quickly like:
      • Water
      • Trees
nonrenewable resources
Nonrenewable Resources
  • Nonrenewable Resources- a resource that forms at a rate that is much slower than the rate at which it is consumed.
    • Ex. Coal, Oil, Petroleum.
    • Because these sources are nonrenewable there is a major need to find sources of energy that are more reliable for the future.
conserving natural resources
Conserving Natural Resources
  • Because natural resources carry so much value to humans one should learn to conserve them even if they are considered renewable.
  • How to conserve Resources:
ecological footprint
Ecological Footprint
  • http://www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/GFN/page/calculators/
slide7
RRR
  • Reduce
    • Reduce the amount of waste that you create.
    • Use cloth bags instead of paper/plastic.
  • Reuse
    • Reuse products as much as possible before throwing them out.
    • Ex. Use a towel twice instead of washing it after one use.
  • Recycle
    • The process of recovering valuable or useful materials from waste or scrap.
    • Newspaper, aluminum cans, plastic, and cardboard can all be recycled.
mining
Mining

the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth.

deforestation
Deforestation

the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is converted to a non-forest use. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use.

agriculture
Agriculture

(also called farming) is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life.

overgrazing
Overgrazing

when plants are exposed to intensive grazing for long periods of time, or without enough recovery time. It can be caused by either livestock in poorly managed agricultural applications, or by overpopulations of native or non-native wild animals.

urbanization
Urbanization

the physical growth of urban areas as a result of global change.

your turn
Your Turn!
  • What do you think the issue is with Urbanization, agriculture, overgrazing, deforestation, and mining?
making news
MAKING NEWS!
  • In the groups I assign, you will research a topic about a human impact on Earths surface.
  • Using the information at your station; Video, Posted information, and Text Book, your group will create a 2 minute News Story to present to the class in a live studio recording!
information you must include in your news story
Information you MUST include in your news story..
  • A description of the activity you are researching.
  • Why it occurs.
  • Most importantly: The impact this activity has on the lithosphere both past and present.
  • Keep it fun, exciting, and informative!

(Why would someone be interested in watching your news report?)

fossil fuels
Fossil Fuels
  • Energy resources – natural resources that humans use to generate energy.
  • Fossil fuel – a nonrenewable energy resource formed from the remains of organisms that lived long ago
    • examples include:
      • Oil
      • Coal
      • Natural gas.
release of energy
Release of Energy
  • Energy is released from fossil fuels when they are burned.
    • Ex. Burning of coal in power plant is used to provide electrical energy.
fossil fuels1
Fossil Fuels
  • All living things are made up of Carbon.
    • Yes that means you are too.
  • Fossil fuels are formed from the remains of plants and animals.
  • Hydrocarbons – the way carbon is found in the majority of fossil fuels.
    • A combination of hydrogen and carbon.
types of fossil fuels
Types of Fossil Fuels
  • Fossil Fuels can be found as:
    • Solid
    • Liquid
    • Gas
liquid fossil fuels
Liquid Fossil Fuels
  • Petroleum – a liquid mixture of complex hydrocarbon compounds; used widely as a fuel source.
    • Also known as crude oil.
    • Separated into several kinds of products in refineries.
liquid fossil fuels1
Liquid Fossil Fuels
  • Different types of products that petroleum can be separated into:
    • Gasoline
    • Jet Fuel
    • Kerosene
    • Diesel Fuel
    • Fuel Oil
black gold
Black Gold
  • Petroleum is often referred to as black gold due to its importance to society.
    • 40% of the world’s energy comes from petroleum products.
    • Petroleum products are the main fuel for forms of transportation.
gaseous fossil fuels
Gaseous Fossil Fuels
  • Natural gas – a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons located under the surface of the Earth, often near petroleum deposits; used as a fuel.
    • Used for heating
    • Generating electricity
    • Some stoves use natural gas
advantages of natural gases
Advantages of Natural Gases
  • Advantage of using natural gas:
    • Using it causes les air pollution than using oil.
  • Disadvantages
    • Very flammable
    • Gas leaks can lead to fires or deadly explosions
types of natural gas
Types of Natural Gas
  • Main components of natural gas:
    • Methane
      • CH4
    • Other products that can be separated from natural gas include:
      • Butane
      • Propane
        • These products are often used to cook with in camp stoves and outdoor grills.
solid fossil fuels
Solid Fossil Fuels
  • Coal – a fossil fuel that forms underground from partially decomposed plant material.
  • Uses:
    • Heating homes
    • Transportation in trains and boats.
      • Coal is no longer used in heating or for transportation purposes.
    • Generation of electricity. ( Main use today.)
slide28
Peat
  • Peat – is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation.
    • Used as a fuel source.
    • Releases large amounts of carbon when burned.
petroleum and natural gas formation
Petroleum and Natural Gas Formation
  • Microscopic sea organisms die.
  • The remains settle on the ocean floor.
  • The remains decay, are buried, and become part of the ocean sediment.
  • Eventually the sediment becomes rock trapping the remains.
    • Petroleum and natural gas form this way.
petroleum and natural gas formation1
Petroleum and Natural Gas Formation
  • Eventually over time, the pressure of overlying rocks and sediment allow the fossil fuels to move through the permeable rocks.
  • Permeable rocks – rocks that allow fluids to move through them.
petroleum and natural gas formation2
Petroleum and Natural Gas Formation
  • Petroleum and natural gas is an ongoing process.
  • Part of the remains of today’s sea life will become petroleum and natural gas millions of year from now.
coal formation carbonization
Coal Formation - CARBONIZATION
  • Forms underground from decayed swamp plants over millions of years.
  • When the plants die, they sink to the bottom of the swamp.
  • This is the start of the process in which coal is formed.
how do we obtain fossil fuels
How Do We Obtain Fossil Fuels?
  • Petroleum and Natural Gas
    • Removed from Earth by drilling wells into rock.
      • Oil wells exist on land and in the ocean.
    • In the ocean, large drills are attached to large platforms that are anchored to the ocean floor.
  • Coal
    • Obtained by either subsurface mining or surface mining.
problems with fossil fuels
Problems with Fossil Fuels
  • Acid precipitation – precipitation, such as rain sleet or snow that contains a high concentration of acids, often because of the pollution of the atmosphere.
formation of acid rain
Formation of Acid Rain
  • Sulfur dioxide is released into the atmosphere when coal is burned without pollution controls.
  • Sulfur dioxide combines with moisture in the air to produce sulfuric acid.
  • Sulfuric acid is the cause of acid rain.
  • Can effect wildlife, plants, buildings, and statues.
coal mining
Coal Mining
  • The mining of coal can also create environmental problems.
    • Surface mining removes soil in which some plants and animals need for shelter.
    • Can lower water tables and pollute water supplies.
    • Coal mines endanger the lives of miners.
petroleum problems
Petroleum Problems
  • Producing, transporting, and using petroleum can cause environmental problems and endanger wildlife.
    • Ex. Treasure, an oil rig, sank off the coast of South Africa and spilled more than 400 tons of oil.
    • The oil coated thousands of blackfooted penguins.
      • Hindering the penguins from swimming and catching fish for food.
slide46
Smog
  • Smog – photochemical haze that forms when sunlight acts on industrial pollutants and burning fuels.
    • Result of millions of automobiles that burn gasoline.
    • Due to the Mountains that surround Los Angeles it prevents winds from blowing the pollutants away.
splitting the atom
Splitting the Atom
  • Nuclear energy – the energy released by a fission or fusion reaction; the binding energy of the atomic nucleus.
  • Fission – a process in which the nuclei of radioactive atoms are split into two or more smaller nuclei.
    • Releases a large amount of energy.
pros of fission
Pros of Fission
  • A lot of energy is being produced.
  • Economically it is fairly cheap once the plant has been made.
  • Cheapest and most clean way of producing electricity, since no greenhouse gasses are produced.
cons of fission
Cons of Fission
  • Accidents Happen:
    • If cooling system stops working the plant could experience a meltdown.
    • Ex. Chernobyl, USSR
    • Three Mile Island
  • Nuclear Waste
    • Storage
    • Transportation
chernobyl ussr
Chernobyl, USSR
  • In 1986 a runaway fission reaction at the power plant caused a violent explosion.
    • 31 people were killed from the explosion.
    • 15,000 people are expected to die in the next 50 years from radioactive fallout.
abandoned city of pripyat
Abandoned City of Pripyat
  • Home of the power plant and the people that worked at it.
    • Population before the accident was approximately 50,000.
  • Today the city is considered to be safe to visit but many people are scared to enter the city due to its past.
three mile island
Three Mile Island
  • March 28,1979 a nuclear reactor near Middletown, Pennsylvania partial melted down.
  • Due to the small amount of exposures of radiation there has been no links between cancer or other complications and the accident.
combining atoms
Combining Atoms
  • Fusion – is the joining of two or more nuclei to form a larger nucleus.
    • This process releases large amounts of energy.
    • Occurs in the sun naturally.
    • Too expensive to use fusion reactions on Earth.
advantages of fusion
Advantages of Fusion
  • Produces very few dangerous wastes.
  • Abundant fuel supply would be available.
  • No Air Pollution
  • No risk of a nuclear meltdown.
  • No generation of weapons material.
solar energy
Solar Energy
  • Solar energy – the energy received by the Earth from the sun in the form of radiation.
    • Renewable resource of energy. (Sort of)
    • Can be used directly to heat building and to generate electricity.
    • Currently we do not generate the energy needed to use solar energy.
solar energy1
Solar Energy
  • Solar panels – large panels made up of many solar cells wired together.
    • Provide some of the electrical energy used in buildings.
    • Change sunlight into electrical energy through the use of photovoltaic cells.
      • Ex. Solar powered calculator.
solar heating
Solar Heating
  • Solar collectors – dark colored boxes that have glass or plastic tops.
    • Used to heat water.
    • Commonly used in Florida and California
pros and cons of solar energy
Pros and cons of Solar Energy
  • Pros:
    • No pollution is produced.
    • Renewable source of energy.
  • Cons:
    • Some climates don’t have enough sunny days to benefit from solar energy.
    • Solar cells and solar collectors are expensive to make.
wind power
Wind Power
  • Wind Power – the use of a windmill to drive an electric generator.
    • Use of a windmill to drive an electric generator.
    • Wind energy is renewable
    • No pollution is Caused.

Con

Wind isn’t strong enough or frequent enough to create energy on a large scale.

hydroelectric energy
Hydroelectric Energy
  • Hydroelectric Energy – electrical energy produced by falling water.
    • Man has used water power since ancient times.
    • During the Industrial Revolution, water wheels provided energy for many factories.
pros and cons of hydroelectric energy
Pros and Cons of Hydroelectric Energy
  • Pros:
    • Inexpensive and causes little pollution
    • Renewable (Kind of)
  • Cons:
    • Not available everywhere.
    • Can be produced only where large volumes of falling water can be harnessed
    • Large dams could destroy forest and wildlife habitats.
      • Ex. Columbia river in Washington state salmon are prevented from migrating up stream.
power from plants
Power From Plants
  • Biomass – organic matter that can be a source of energy.
    • Animals and Plants both absorb energy from the sun and store it for later use.
    • Leaves, wood, and other parts of plants contain the stored energy.
    • Even the dung of a plant-grazing animal is high in stored energy.
burning biomass
Burning Biomass
  • Biomass energy can be released in several ways.
  • Burning the biomass is the easiest and most common way.
    • About half of the world burns wood or charcoal to heat their homes and cook their food.
gasohol
Gasohol
  • Gasohol – a mixture of gasoline and alcohol that is used as a fuel.
  • Biomass material can be changed into liquid fuel.
    • Plants that contain sugar or starch can be made into alcohol by a process known as fermentation.
    • Biomass requires approximately one complete harvest to provide only 10% of our gas usage in the US.
    • Gasohol also requires a lot of land in order to grow the corn.
energy from within earth
Energy from Within Earth
  • Geothermal Energy – the energy produced by heat within the Earth.
geothermal energy
Geothermal Energy
  • Geysers – natural vents that discharge steam or water in a column into the air.
geothermal energy1
Geothermal Energy
  • Power plants are built on top of these drilled wells to harness the energy.
    • The world largest is located in California called The Geysers.
      • Producing electricity for 1.7 million homes.
    • Geothermal energy can also be pumped through building in order to heat them.
      • Many building Iceland are heated this way.
consequences of various types of land use
Consequences of various types of land use.
  • Urbanization
  • Deforestation
  • Agriculture