NON RENEWABLEENERGY oil natural gas coal nuclear
ENERGY • The ability to move matter around. That something which is necessary to maintain life and a vibrant society. • Law of Conservation of Energy – Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It can be changed from one form to another.
Forms of energy • Energy can be in the form of light, heat, sound, electricity, motion (kinetic energy), or stored as a potential energy. • No energy conversion is 100% efficient when changed from one form to the next.
TYPES OF ENERGY RESOURCES • About 76% of the commercial energy we use comes from nonrenewable fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal) with the remainder coming from renewable sources.
Energy Consumption in the United States Sequence of use Wood Water (steam) Coal Natural gas Oil Nuclear power 3, 4, and 5 = 83.5% of U.S. energy consumption
Oil and natural gas Floating oil drilling platform Coal Oil storage Geothermal energy Contour strip mining Oil drilling platform on legs Hot water storage Oil well Gas well Geothermal power plant Pipeline Mined coal Valves Area strip mining Pipeline Pump Drilling tower Underground coal mine Impervious rock Oil Natural gas Water Water is heated and brought up as dry steam or wet steam Water Water penetrates down through the rock Coal seam Hot rock Magma Fig. 16-2, p. 357
TYPES OF ENERGY RESOURCES • Commercial energy use by source for the world (left) and the U.S. (right). Figure 16-3
TYPES OF ENERGY RESOURCES • Net energy is the amount of high-quality usable energy available from a resource after subtracting the energy needed to make it available.
Electrical Power Production: The Beginning Michael Faraday 1831
OIL • Crude oil (petroleum) is a thick liquid containing hydrocarbons that we extract from underground deposits and separate into products such as gasoline, heating oil and asphalt. • Only 35-50% can be economically recovered from a deposit. • As prices rise, about 10-25% more can be recovered from expensive secondary extraction techniques. • This lowers the net energy yield.
OIL • Refining crude oil: • Based on boiling points, components are removed at various layers in a giant distillation column. • The most volatile components with the lowest boiling points are removed at the top. Figure 16-5
“OTHER” ITEMS • chemicals, fertilizer, plastic, synthetic fibers, rubber and even such everyday products such as petroleum jelly, ink, crayons, bubble gum, dishwashing liquids and deodorant
LPGs • ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, butane, butylenes, isobutane and isobutylene
Petroleum coke • The heaviest product • Almost pure carbon • The product that remains after all other hydrocarbons have been removed. • Coke with low sulphur content is used as fuel for industries and power plants. • Coke with high sulphur content is used as a catalyst in refineries
OIL • OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) has 78% of the world’s proven oil reserves and most of the world’s unproven reserves. • After global production peaks and begins a slow decline, oil prices will rise and could threaten the economies of countries that have not shifted to new energy alternatives.
Case Study: U.S. Oil Supplies • The U.S. – the world’s largest oil user – has only 2.9% of the world’s proven oil reserves. • U.S oil production peaked in 1974 (halfway production point). • About 60% of U.S oil imports goes through refineries in hurricane-prone regions of the Gulf Coast.
How Long Will the Oil Party Last? • We have three options: • Look for more oil. • Use or waste less oil. • Use something else. Figure 16-1
OIL Pros and Cons Pros Cons Burning oil for transportation accounts for 43% of global CO2 emissions. Subsidized oil discourages R&D for new energy sources • High net energy yield • Easily transported long distances • Low land use
Oil Shales • Oil shales contain a solid combustible mixture of hydrocarbons called kerogen. Figure 16-9
Tar sand • A.k.a. oil sand or bituminous sand • The sands contain naturally occurring mixtures of sand, clay, water, and a dense and extremely viscous form of petroleum technically referred to as bitumen • Large deposits found in Canada and Venezuela
Heavy oils Pros Cons It takes about 1.8 metric tons of oil sand to produce one barrel of oil. (One barrel is approximately 0.15 ton) Large land disruption Severe water pollution High sulfur content • Large potential supply • Easily transported
Keystone Pipeline • Transport oil from the Athabasca Oil Sands in Alberta, Canada to multiple destinations in the United States, which include refineries in Illinois, an oil distribution hub in Oklahoma, and proposed connections to refineries along the Gulf Coast of Texas.
Dependence on Foreign Oil • Video clip
NATURAL GAS • Natural gas, consisting mostly of methane, is often found above reservoirs of crude oil. • When a natural gas-field is tapped, gasses are liquefied and removed as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).
NATURAL GAS • Russia and Iran have almost half of the world’s reserves of conventional gas, and global reserves should last 62-125 years. • Natural gas is versatile and clean-burning fuel, (produces 30% less CO2 when burned and releases methane (from leaks) into the troposphere).
Sources of Natural Gas • Natural gas fields • Associated with oil distillation • Coal beds • Coal beds and bubbles of methane trapped in ice crystals deep under the arctic permafrost and beneath deep-ocean sediments are unconventional sources of natural gas.
Biogas • gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. • Primarily comprised of methane and carbon dioxide
Biogas • One cow can produce enough manure in one day to generate three kilowatt hours of electricity; only 2.4 kilowatt hours of electricity are needed to power a single one hundred watt light bulb for one day. • Nitrous dioxide and methane (major global warmers) are converted to CO2 and H2.
Landfill Recovery • Landfills are the largest source of U.S. anthropogenic methane emissions. • Landfill methane is produced when organic materials are decomposed by bacteria under anaerobic conditions.
COAL • Coal is a solid fossil fuel that is formed in several stages as the buried remains of land plants that lived 300-400 million years ago. Figure 16-12
Types of Coal Lignite Bituminous Anthracite • Lowest quality • Crumbly • High moisture content • Found in Texas • 25-35% carbon • Smooth/shiny • Most abundant coal in the US • 2-3 xs the heating value of lignite • 45-86% carbon • Highest quality • Deep black • Metallic/glossy • Found in Pennsylvania • 86-97% carbon
Waste heat Cooling tower transfers waste heat to atmosphere Coal bunker Turbine Generator Cooling loop Stack Pulverizing mill Condenser Filter Boiler Wet Scrubber Toxic ash disposal Fig. 16-13, p. 369
COAL • Coal reserves in the United States, Russia, and China could last hundreds to over a thousand years. • The U.S. has 27% of the world’s proven coal reserves, followed by Russia (17%), and China (13%). • In 2005, China and the U.S. accounted for 53% of the global coal consumption.
COAL • Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel, but compared to oil and natural gas it is not as versatile, has a high environmental impact, and releases much more CO2 into the troposphere. Figure 16-14
COAL • Coal can be converted into synthetic natural gas (SNG or syngas) and liquid fuels (such as methanol or synthetic gasoline) that burn cleaner than coal. • Costs are high. • Burning them adds more CO2 to the troposphere than burning coal.
COAL • Since CO2 is not regulated as an air pollutant and costs are high, U.S. coal-burning plants are unlikely to invest in coal gasification. Figure 16-15
Primary and Secondary Effects From Burning Coal Global Warming Acid Rain Smog Burning Coal = CO2 + SO + H2O + Ash + (CxHxSxOx) Light + Noise + Heat