Ancient Rome Chapter 10, Lesson 2 & 3 Notes
Roman Colosseum • Roman sports arena that held popular events, sometimes involving professional fighters such as gladiators. Gladiators often fought to the death. • The Colosseum could seat 50,000 people. • Best seats were saved for the wealthy and important citizens. • The colosseum had machinery below the arena floor that made it possible to lift animal cages or equipment to the surface.
Citizens of Rome • Believed in the protection of the legal system. • Although people spoke many different languages, people throughout the Roman Empire also spoke a common language, Latin. • Roman citizens were divided into two groups: • Patricians – were wealthy and powerful citizens. • Plebeians – all other citizens which included farmers, soldiers, and merchants. 90% of all people were plebeians.
How Romans Governed Themselves • Republic - Citizens had the right to vote or choose their leaders. • Those that were elected to represent the people are called representatives. • Roman representatives that served in a governing body was called the Senate.
Roman Government continued • Not everyone that lived in Rome was a citizen. • Slaves and foreigners were not citizens. • Women had few rights. • The could not vote. • Could not hold public office. Woman could: • Own property • Testify in court
ROMAN GOVERNMENT • .
Roman Tribune • Tribunes were men that were appointed by the Senate to protect the rights of the plebeians. • Any tribune could stop any action of the Senate by shouting, “Veto!” Veto is a Latin word that means “I forbid.”
Punic Wars • The Punic Wars were three wars that were fought between Rome and Carthage. • The wars lasted 120 years. • Romans won all three battles. • Carthage was a powerful city-state in North Africa.
Hannibal and Scipio • Hannibal was a general of Carthage. • Scipio was a Roman general. • At that time, Hannibal use elephants to cross the Alps (mountains) and surprise the Romans. Scipio attacked Carthage and defeated them again.
Julius Caesar • Roman ruler who was victorious in conquering other lands. • He was stabbed to death in the Senate because others feared he would destroy the republic by taking total power of Rome.
Appian Way • The Appian Way was a road that Ancient Rome built that stretched more than 350 miles.
Marcus Aurelius • Marcus Aurelius was a philosopher who was known as a fair ruler. • He is considered the last of Rome’s Five Good Emperors.
“PaxRomana” • PaxRomana means the 200 years of Roman peace which brought growth and prosperity to Rome.
Aqueduct • Roman towns needed water supply to keep the people clean and give them a water source for them to drink from. • Most of the water was used in public baths, for ordinary citizen or private baths for wealthy citizens. • The water did not reach the 2nd floor of houses, so dirty water and waste was thrown out into the streets from the windows. • The Roman Aqueduct in Nimes, France dates back to the 1st century A.D.