AncientRome The Life and Times of Julius Caesar
Roman families were small. Parents usually had three children or less. Children were expected to grow up quickly. • Children in poor families had to start work as young as 5 or 6. Richer children did little but play until they were 7. • Boys then started school. Most left at 11 to learn the family business. Boys were considered to be adults at 14. • Girls were educated at home. They were taught how to run a household by their mothers. Most girls were engaged by 12 and married by 14. • Parents were affectionate towards their children but they expected to be obeyed. • Marriages often ended in divorce. If this happened, the children always stayed with the father. The Romans believed that age brought wisdom. Because of this, they respected aged relatives.
SLAVES WET NURSE THE MOTHER
Family Life (A) SLAVES Household slaves were often well treated. Many were freed as a reward for good service. (B) WET NURSE The wet nurse was a slave who looked after children. She washed, dressed, and fed them, played with them and helped in their education. Children often saw their parents only at the evening meal. (C) THE MOTHER With slaves looking after her children, the mother could concentrate on managing the household.
AQUEDUCT BATHS AMPHITHEATRE FORUM THEATRE TEMPLE BASILICA
A) AMPHITHEATRE This was used for bloodthirsty shows like gladiator fights. (B) THEATRE Audiences at the theatre sat in a semicircle facing the stage. (C) FORUM The forum was the town's main meeting place and market square. The covered sides contained shops and offices. (D) BATHS Every town had at least one public bathhouse; large towns had several. Baths were popular social centers. (E) AQUEDUCT Aqueducts brought supplies of clean drinking water to the town. (F) TEMPLE Roman temple architecture closely copied Greek styles. Temples were usually built on a raised platform. (G) BASILICA The basilica was used as a law court and meeting hall for the town council. It was always built next to the forum.
753 B.C. - 509 B.C. The Monarchy • Many different kings ruled Rome • The last of the kings were the Tarquins • oppressive • overthrown by Lucius Junius Brutus (ancestor of the character Marcus Brutus in the play.) • Monarchy was replaced with a Republican form of government
509 BC-57 BC The Republic One brief dictatorship (82 B.C. to 79 B.C.) - Sulla who was Caesar’s uncle.
The Roman Citizen Meeting of Tribal Assembly plebiscites - election of: Meeting of Cenuturiate Assembly laws, treaties, declarations of war election of: Priests determination of will of gods, calendar, law 2 censors (every 5 years) (Advice) Senate 10 Tribunes Praetors, Judicial Machinery, governors 2 consuls, (generals, direction of government) Provinces Quaestors (financial) finance 2 aediles 2 aediles (city of Rome) VETO Government of Rome about 264 BC Tribune
Consuls - The highest office elected (2 served here) Centuriate Assembly - Aristocratic Body Plebiscites - legislation passed by Tribal Assembly Magistrates - served one year terms (never renewed) Quaestors - Financial Officials Aedilies - Supervise Markets and Roads Tribunes - Protect the interests of the working class Pontifex Maximus - supervise public sacrifices and festivals and sets calendar
The Two Consuls • Highest ranking officials • Elected in pairs for one year terms • Commanders and Chiefs of the Army • Presided over the Senate
The Senate Patricians • Main ruling body of Rome • 600 members were selected by the consuls • Comprised of Patricians - wealthy noble and middle class citizens • Their decisions became law unless they were vetoed by the Tribunes.
CONSULS SENATORS LICTORS TOGA
(A) LICTORSThe consul was escorted by lictors in public. Lictors carried bundles of rods and axes called fasces. These were symbols of the consul's powers. (B) TOGAThe toga was a semicircular piece of woolen cloth that was wrapped around the body. Only Roman citizens were allowed to wear the toga. (C) CONSULSThe consuls were the most senior magistrates. They controlled foreign affairs and commanded the army in wartime. Two consuls were elected each year. (D) SENATORS Only men with experience in government were allowed to join the Senate. There were 300 senators and they served for life.
The Senate Aristocratic Class
The Tribunes • The only plebian (working class) elected officials. • They had the power to veto the Senate • They were to protect the rights of ordinary citizens. • They were not allowed to be arrested - to protect them from Senate retribution. • They were often assassinated.
Plebian Class Tribunes The Vox Populari Exempt from Arrest
57B.C. - 48 B.C.The First Triumvirate • Crassus and Pompey vied for power with their wealth and armies • Julius Caesar negotiated a compromise • Divided the empire into regions with exclusive rule • Gaul: Caesar • Spain: Pompey • Syria: Crassus
Civil War • Political anarchy reigned in Rome with some senators plotting with Pompey to try Caesar for treason. • Caesar and his army chased Pompey out of Italy into Greece • Crassus was defeated and killed by another Army in Syria
48 B.C. - 44 B.C. Caesar’s Rule • After defeating Pompey, Caesar • Traveled to Egypt • Fell in love with 17 year old Cleopatra • Subdued several rebellions in Syria, Asia Minor, Africa, and Spain • Established himself as the master of the Roman Empire • (This is the when Shakespeare’s Play is set)
The First Triumvirate J.Caesar Gaul Crassus Syria Pompey Spain
The Second Triumvirate • Marcus Antonius • (Marc Antony) • Marcus Aemilius Lepidus • (Lepidus) • Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus • (Octavius) • ("Octavian", later "Caesar Augustus")