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Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome

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Ancient Rome

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  1. Ancient Rome Mr. Pentzak Level One Individuals & Societies

  2. Pre-Test 3/25 & 3/26 Where is Italy? What are some natural boundaries of Italy? What river is Rome situated on? According to the legend of the founding of Rome, who were the two twins that built Rome? Who was their father? How does the legend above relate to the story of The Aeneid? Who wrote the Aeneid? How is it similar to Homer’s epics The Iliad and The Odyssey? Name two cultures that heavily influenced Roman civilization

  3. Pre-Test Continued When did the Roman Empire collapse? What is the difference between a Patrician and Plebian? What are Romance Languages and what do they have to do with Rome? Name at least one Roman god/goddess and their Greek counterpart. How did the Roman Empire influence Christianity? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=me4E5wDCK2Q

  4. Vocabulary List #3 • Patrician • Plebian • Veto • Senate • Consul • Conquer • Tolerance • Persecute • Successor • Legend

  5. Standardized Definitions • Patrician- an aristocrat or nobleman • Plebian- a commoner • Veto- the power to prevent legislation or action proposed by others • Senate- an assembly of citizens having the highest deliberative functions in a government, esp. a legislative assembly of a state or nation. • Consul- (in ancient Rome) one of the two annually elected chief magistrates who jointly ruled the republic. • Conquer- overcome and take control of (a place or people) by use of military force. • Tolerance- willingness to accept feelings, habits, or beliefs that are different from your own • Persecute- subject (someone) to hostility and ill-treatment, esp. because of their race or political or religious beliefs • Successor- a person or entity who takes over and continues the role or position of another. • Legend- a traditional story sometimes popularly regarded as historical but unauthenticated

  6. Popcorn Reading I will select who will read first. After reading AT LEAST THREE SENTENCES, the reader may then select the next student to read aloud by saying “popcorn, (name of student)” and throwing the beach ball/dino plush towards them. The process will continue until the selected passage is completed. No repeats until everyone has read!

  7. Origins of Rome Historians do not know exactly how Rome came to be, but later Romans came up with legends that explained their origins. We will be working in groups of three to four to explore the two famous legends surrounding the founding of Rome. We will be watching short video clips, working with complex texts, and working collaboratively to sort the details out! http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/romes-humble-beginnings-from-a-greek-colony-to-the-formation-of-the-republic.html#lesson (Skip 6:15-6:52)

  8. Legendary Rome • The Aeneid • http://app.discoveryeducation.com/player/view/assetGuid/1524F9FB-0302-4283-9D05-BCE42A4C6C1D • Written by Roman poet Virgil in 19 BCE • Glorifies the history of Rome, borrows the glory of the Greeks, adds divinity of the ruler • Romulus & Remus • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wA1D9wd29jI&authuser=0 • Explains the construction of Rome in 753 BCE • Divine influences, fratricide, fills in the gaps between the Aeneid to the founding of the city

  9. Origins of Rome Romulus & Remus Virgil’s The Aeneid Aeneas is a Trojan prince, escapes during the fall of Troy Epic adventure all over the Mediterranean Sea Gods divert him for a long time Finally gets to Italy, aligns himself with the locals, marries a princess, starts a war He eventually wins, his family becomes the ruling class Rhea Silva is Aeneas’ descendant • Twins born to the god of war Mars and Rhea Silva, a princess that was banished to a temple by her cruel uncle • Her uncle has the kids kidnapped and “drowned” • Kids rescued and raised by wolves, later adopted • Grow up, kill uncle, claim throne through mother’s heritage • Build a city, get in a fight about what to call it, Romulus kills Remus and names city Rome

  10. Bell Ringer 3/27 & 3/28 • Give me the PLOT of the legend of Romulus and Remus • Who were the main characters? • Are there any elements to this story that you can connect to other stories or legends?

  11. Homework 3/27 & 3/28 Go this this website: http://www.purposegames.com/game/roman-empire-basic-geography-game Do five rounds, recording your scores and times on a piece of paper Have whoever is at home sign/initial to verify you did it Bring in for next class

  12. Bell Ringer 3/31 & 4/1 Take out your old Vocabulary List Three homework & your homework with the mapping game Draw a picture of two words that clearly represents the meaning of those words. Are there any words you are struggling with? If not, please study the words on list three silently.

  13. an aristocrat or nobleman • A form of government headed by a hereditary sovereign head of state, esp. a king, queen, or emperor. • a commoner • A government by the best individuals or by a small, wealthy, landholding privileged class • A small group of people having control of a country, organization, or institution • the power to prevent legislation or action proposed by others • an assembly of citizens having the highest deliberative functions in a government, esp. a legislative assembly of a state or nation. • (in ancient Rome) one of the two annually elected chief magistrates who jointly ruled the republic. • overcome and take control of (a place or people) by use of military force. • willingness to accept feelings, habits, or beliefs that are different from your own • subject (someone) to hostility and ill-treatment, esp. because of their race or political or religious beliefs • A state in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives, and which has an elected or nominated president rather than a monarch. • a person or entity who takes over and continues the role or position of another. • a traditional story sometimes popularly regarded as historical but unauthenticated • A non-elected absolute ruler that takes power by force Legend Senate Republic Plebian Aristocracy Tolerance Patrician Oligarchy Veto Consul Tyrant Persecute Monarchy Successor Conquer BONUS 16. Define “Pilgrimage”

  14. Homework 3/31 & 4/1 Go to this website: http://www.purposegames.com/game/longitude-and-latitude-quiz Do five rounds, recording your scores and times on a piece of paper Have whoever is at home sign/initial to verify you did it Bring in for next class

  15. Bell Ringer 4/2 & 4/3 How are the stories of Romulus and Remus and The Aeneid related? How do you think Patricians or Plebeians can be connected to those stories? How do you think the lives of slaves, plebeians, and patricians were similar/different?

  16. Bell Ringer 4/4 & 4/7 How do we decide what things are important? What is the best way to remember/organize a lot of information?

  17. Bell Ringer 4/10 & 4/11 What did you like about doing the timeline assignment? What didn’t you like? What did you learn from doing this assignment? What changes would you make to the assignments if you had to do it again?

  18. Bell Ringer 4/14 & 4/15 • Take out vocab list three and review for two minutes • Are there any words that you are struggling with? • Take out a blank piece of paper • Write your name, date, and block in the upper right hand corner • Write “Vocab Quiz 3.5” on the top line • Number your paper 1-10 along the left side

  19. Mental Map Directions • On the piece of paper provided, draw a map of the Roman Empire, using only your “mental map” or existing geography skills. • You will have ten minutes • Try to be as accurate as you can be • Using markers, colored pencils, or crayons, please shade the extent of the Roman Empire at it’s height of power • This will serve as another pre-test measure, we will compare this one to one we do at the end of the unit • See Mr. Pentzak’s example

  20. How Did We Do?

  21. Roman Dragon…

  22. For Labeling Your Maps

  23. On Your Maps… Plot the following coordinates (city locations) and then use your word bank to identify them. Use an atlas, textbook, or map to label the other items in your word bank • (41˚N, 12˚E) • (32˚N, 35˚E) • (51˚N, 0˚E) • (49˚N, 2˚E) • (37˚N, 10˚E) • (38˚N, 24˚E) • (31˚N, 30˚E) • (35˚N, 36˚E) • (32˚N, 44˚E) • (41˚N, 29˚E)

  24. Early Italy • THE ETRUSCANS • First people in Italy (?) • Different language, religion, and culture • Women seemed to have high status, depicted in art, mentioned in burials • What we know of them comes from archeological finds and their descriptions in Greek and Roman histories • Latins adapted their style of clothing, city layout (hill, ditch, wall) some of their words, social class • THE LATINS • A tribe that lived in the area that is now Rome • Spoke a older form of Latin • Did not leave many written records • Loosely unified settlements, ethnically Latins • The king of the Latins, Latinus met with Aeneas, he marries his daughter Lavinia and builds a new capital city. • Eventually, this line is supposed to have produced Romulus and Remus

  25. So... Rome? We can divide it's history into three main pieces or eras: Kingdom, Republic, and Empire Roman Kingdom 753 BCE- 509 BCE Founded in 753 BCE Ruled as a monarchy (Romulus first king) Romulus is said to have create the senate 300 of the best individuals After each king died, a new king would be voted in The last king was a cruel tyrant, over thrown in 509 BCE Leaders of the rebellion became the first to consuls of the Roman Republic

  26. Roman Republic Roman Republic 509 BCE- 27 BCE • Consuls voted in each year, they can veto each other and guided by the senate • Check and balances! • Typically high offices were reserved for Patricians • Plebs/Plebeians were just about everyone besides Patricians: shop keepers, merchants, skilled craftsmen, unskilled laborers. • Many of Rome's wealthiest families end up being Plebian • A series of political conflicts from 494-287 BCE sought to level the class differences • Once equal representation in gov’t. achieved, those Plebeians in office became more Patrician • Revolution!

  27. Roman Empire • 27 BCE – 476 CE (Western)/ 330-1453 CE (Eastern) • Julius Caesar elected as Consul in 59 BCE • He and his two close friends form a political alliance (triumvirate) which basically voids the power of the other consul member • After his year is up, Caesar leaves Rome and becomes a governor and then lead military campaigns to the north • Political rivals back in Rome – He cannot come back • 49 BCE Crosses the Rubicon River (an act of Civil War) • 48 BCE Caesar appointed dictator of Rome

  28. Caesar Continued • Must fight off his rivals to secure his power • Chases his enemy Pompey to Egypt • Egyptian Pharaoh serves his head on a platter, Caesar not pleased • Cleopatra is the pharaoh's brother, Caesar appoint her to throne • Major reforms of the Republic • Make distant provinces loyal to Rome-appoint reps in senate • Grants citizenship to loyal non-Romans • Julian calendar (solar, aligned with seasons vs. lunar) • Term limits, luxury taxes, land distribution • Assassinated on March 15, 44 BCE • http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/the-death-of-the-republic-and-birth-of-the-roman-empire.html#lesson

  29. Octavius/Augustus • Caesar’s nephew and appointed heir • Punishes Caesar's assassins • Maintains the image of a Republic, rules absolutely • Expands the empire + builds roads • PaxRomana (27 BCE – 180 CE) • “Roman Peace” • Relative peace and expansion (height of territory) • Economic boom • http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/the-early-roman-empire-and-the-reign-of-augustus-caesar.html#lesson

  30. Division of Roman Empire • Empire became too large/unstable • Emperor Diocletian divided Empire into four pieces- tetrarchy in 293 CE, by 324 CE empire would be rejoined • 330 CE Emperor Constantine moves capital to “New Rome” aka Constantinople • Dynastic rule returns of whole empire • 395 CE Emperor Theodosius dies • Sons inherit East and West, perm. split

  31. Western & Eastern Empires 395 CE

  32. Fall of Empire http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/the-fall-of-rome.html#lesson Political corruption, barbarian invasions, disease, natural disasters, ineffective leadership, division of the empire, stagnant economy, civil wars, breakdown of morals have all been proposed as contributing factors 476 CE a Germanic soldier Odoacer overthrows last emperor of Western Roman Empire and declares himself king Eastern half of the Empire will continue on as the Byzantine Empire until 1453 CE when the Ottomans capture Constantinople

  33. Timeline Directions • The following events are NOT in order • Place them in the correct chronological order (oldest date to most recent date) labeled with the YEAR • http://www.scaruffi.com/politics/romans.html • HINT: use “CTRL + F” to search the website • Change “BC” to “BCE”, “AD” to “CE” no letters? It’s CE • Then, please write at least one complete sentence that explains the significance of that event • Do this on a separate sheet of paper neatly!

  34. Timeline • Approximate date of Trojan War c. 1200 BCE • Founding of Rome • End of Roman Kingdom/Beginning of the Roman Republic • Ottomans capture Constantinople 1453 CE • Caesar elected Consul of Rome • First aqueduct built • Carthage destroyed • Coliseum built • Division of Empire into East/West • Caesar crossed the Rubicon • Julian calendar created • Battle of Actium • Caesar assassinated • Octavius declares himself emperor • Holy Roman Empire established • Jerusalem destroyed • Vandals sack Rome • Fall of Western Roman Empire • Christianity proclaimed official religion of the Empire

  35. Peer Grading of Timlines Please write graded by: (your name) on the back of your peer’s paper neatly You should only make small “x”s on the dates and events that are incorrect. NO other comments, marks, or drawings of any sort! 19 points for events being in order (1 point per event) and 19 points for correct dates (1 point per correct date) and two points for having their name and block (1 point for each) We will give them a score out of 40 points You will receive a separate grade from Mr. Pentzak for your sentences on the significance of the event.

  36. Timeline Answers • 1. Trojan War c. 1200 BCE • 2. Founding of Rome 753 BCE • 3. Rome Republic 509 BCE • 4. 1st Aqueduct 312 BCE • 5. Carthage destroyed 146 BCE • 6. Caesar elected consul 59 BCE • 7. Caesar crosses Rubicon 49 BCE • 8. Julian Calendar 45 BCE • 9. Caesar assassinated 44 BCE • 10. Battle of Actium 31 BCE • 11. Octavian declares himself emperor 27 BCE • 12. Jerusalem destroyed 70 CE • 13. Coliseum built 79 CE • 14. Christianity becomes official religion of the empire 380 CE • 15. Division of Empire 395 CE* • 16. Vandals sack Rome 455 CE • 17. Fall of Western Empire 476 CE • 18. Holy Roman Empire est. 800 CE • 19. Ottomans capture Constantinople 1453 CE

  37. Roman religion result of indigenous Latin beliefs and Greek influences • Same Greek gods, new names • Lareswere personal household spirits or deities that were worshiped by specific families, throwback to the Etruscans (?) Greek vs. Roman Gods

  38. Latin was spoken throughout the Roman Empire • After the collapse of the Empire, places become more localized and new dialects formed • Spanish, French, Portuguese, Italian, and Romanian (main ones) Romance Languages All are related to Vulgar Latin and developed between 500-800CE English NOT a Romance Language, although England was occupied by the Romans