Ancient Rome! Lesson 2: The Roman Republic
The Spirit of Rome • During the time of the Roman Republic, and throughout the years of the empire, the Roman people were very • Loyal: Many brave soldiers fought and died for their country. • Patriotic: People were inspired by stories of heroic men who acted bravely in battle. • Proud: Both the rich and poor people of Rome were proud of where they came from.
The Social Classes Patricians: The Patricians were the wealthiest people in Rome. They were the people who had the most power. Plebians: The Plebians were all of the other citizens. These were the common people in Roman Society.
Government Rome was a republic. Republic: A government in which citizens have the right to vote, or choose their leaders. The people who were elected to make laws were called representatives. Representatives governed within a body called the Senate.
Government (Continued) The Patricians were the only people who were allowed to be a part of the Senate. Two Patricians were chosen as consuls who managed the government and the army. In case of an emergency, these consuls would choose a dictator,who would have complete control over the people.
Tribunes Since the Patricians had all of the power, the Plebeians began to become angry and demand greater rights. The Senate selected tribunes to defend the Plebeians’ rights as citizens. They could “veto” Senate votes if they felt like they were unfair to the Plebeian citizens.
Daily Life in the Roman Republic Children: • Went to school • Learned Math using abacuses. • Wrote lessons on sheets of papyrus. • Played with toys such as marbles, dolls, toy animals, and miniature chariots. Clothing • Clothing was light and comfortable because of the warm climate. • Men wore togas made of woolen cloth. • Women wore long tunics and drape robes or cloaks over them. They also wore beautiful jewelry. Pets • Much like in our time, people of ancient Rome had pets. • Their pet dogs were used for protection, and they even had name tags like our pets do.
Punic Wars Throughout the time of the Republic, there was fighting over power. The most famous series of wars were with Carthage. Rome fought three wars with Carthage, totaling 120 years. Rome won all three wars, and in the third one, they defeated Carthage.
The End of the Republic During the age of the Republic, Rome had a very strong military, and they conquered several other nations, but trouble was brewing. • The patricians were gaining almost all of the wealth coming in to the country. • Plebeians were losing their jobs to the slaves who were captured in the Roman conquests. • A HUGE gap between the rich and the poor was growing, and corruption was brewing in the government. Change was on its way.
Julius Caesar One man who made many positive changes in Rome during this time was Julius Caesar. Julius Caesar • A powerful Roman conqueror who led armies to countless victories. • He battled other conquerors to become ruler, for life. He had complete control over the Senate. • Caesar made many changes in Rome in order to create jobs and make the people happy. He was a “people’s ruler.” • Julius Caesar was murdered by other Senate members in 44 B.C. The people were outraged, and Civil War broke out. This was the end of the Roman Republic, and the beginning of the Roman Empire.